Ryokan Day (Ryokan-ki)

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- for temari, see below -

Ryokan Memorial Day (Ryokan-ki 良寛忌)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Late Winter (January 6, 1831)
***** Category: Humanity


Ryokan / Ryookan 良寛 (1758-1831)
(Nickname: Great Fool、Taigu 大愚)

宝暦8年10月2日〔1758年11月2日〕 - 天保2年1月6日〔1831年2月18日〕)
February 18
The dates vary with the calendar.


He lives on as one of Japan's best-loved poets, the wise fool who wrote of his humble life with such directness.
Ordained as a Soto Zen priest and certified as a master, Ryokan chose to express his practice of the Way through living as a hermit in the countryside, begging for his food as was done by the Buddha and His disciples in ancient India.
Ryokan had no disciples, ran no temple, and in the eyes of the world was a penniless monk who spent his life in the snow country of Mt. Kugami in Northern Japan. He admired most the Soto Zen teachings of Dogen Zenji and the unconventional life and poetry of Zen mountain poet Han-shan.

"Who says my poems are poems?
These poems are not poems.
When you can understand this,
Then we can begin to speak of poetry."

Ryokan never published a collection of verse while alive. His practice consisted of sitting in zazen meditation, walking in the woods, playing with children, making his daily begging rounds, reading and writing poetry, doing calligraphy, and on occasion drinking wine with friends.

Too confused to ever earn a living
I've learned to let things have their way

Too lazy to learn right from wrong,
I laugh at myself, ignoring others

He lived for 20 years in a small hermitage at the slope of
Mt. Kugami 国上山(くがみやま)in Echigo province, Northern Japan, also called Mount Yahiko.
I visited this "Go-goo-An" (Gogo-An, 五合庵) many years ago, way up in the hills, quite far to walk to the nearest village to beg for alms. It is located in the precincts of the Temple Kugami-ji, but you reach it only after quite a lonely walk through the forest. It has just four walls and a roof and must be pretty icecold in winter, since this side of Japan receives a lot of snow every year. There is a spring nearby which is said not to freeze in winter.

Temple Entsuu-Ji in Tamashima  玉島の円通寺
Entsu-ji is famous for being the temple where renowned priest Ryokan,lover of children and noted poet and scholar,trained in his youth. The temple holds the Ryokan Festival and the Ryokan Tea Ceremony annually. Entsu-ji was founded by priest Gyoki in the 8th Century. It is set atop a hill surrounded by beautiful gardens with trees,camellias and azaleas in Tamashima, close to Kurashiki in Okayama prefecture.

Ryokan got his name from the priest of this temple.


1790 (The second year of Kansei)
After Ryokan finished his hard training, the Reverend Kokusen gave him a walking stick and a piece of paper, which showed he was a real priest.The paper said: "Ryo seems foolish, but the road is very wide".
And in this we can see the Chinese characters "Ryo
"(Good) and "Kan"(Wide)

In Memory of Ryokan, artists of Tamashima produce a nice Ryokan Daruma doll.

You can read more about Ryokan san in my story here
. Ryokan san and Tamashima Daruma  

Gabi Greve

Temples where Ryokan walked in Bitchu Province

Worldwide use

Things found on the way

An old grave hidden away at the foot of a deserted hill,
Overrun with rank weeks growing unchecked year after year;
There is no one left to tend the tomb,
And only an occasional woodcutter passes by.
Once I was his pupil, a youth with shaggy hair,
Learning deeply from him by the Narrow River.
One morning I set off on my solitary journey
And the years passed between us in silence.
Now I have returned to find him at rest here;
How can I honor his departed spirit?
I pour a dipper of pure water over his tombstone
And offer a silent prayer.
The sun suddenly disappears behind the hill
And I’m enveloped by the roar of the wind in the pines.
I try to pull myself away but cannot;
A flood of tears soaks my sleeves.

source : Poems of Ryokan


Print: Tsukioka Yoshitoshi 1839-1892

carrying my monk's bowl,
I walk to the village
to beg for my daily meal.

- Compiled by Isabelle Loverro -
Joys of Japan, 2012


ake mado no mukashi o shinobu sugure yume

at the open window
the past comes back
better than a dream

Open window Suzuki Harunobu (1725-1770)


良寛忌 東京駅で 友を待つ

Ryokan Memorial Day -
waiting for friends
at Tokyo station

You have to know the millions of people thronging through this central station every day to imagene the hustle and noise there.

Gabi Greve, 1994

winter solitude ...
nobody knocked at my door

Gabi Greve at GokuRakuAn Hermitage, 1998


- Shared by Ron Moss -
Joys of Japan, 2012


Ryokan ceremony
at Entsuu-Ji temple
the scent of tea

a loft of pidgeons
above the statue of Ryokan
plop! plop!

Geert Verbeke
Read more of Geert's haiku about Ryokan here:


Ryokan's haiku about fallen leaves

The leaves are falling
Just enough to make a fire―
A gift of the wind!

oo oo oo oo oo

hibi hibi ni shigure no fureba hito oinu

day after day after day
only cold drizzle with snow <>
I am getting older

More about Ryokan and his haiku


Ryokan was famous for his love of playing with children in the village. In the top picture you see a round ball (temari 手まり、手毬), one of his favorite toys.
紙鉄砲おしえて撃たれ良寛忌‥‥ 下村 英子

hit by the paper gun
I fall down -
Ryokan Memorial Day

Shimomura Eiko


Ryookan-ki -
her toys forgotten
in the attic

Gabi Greve


temari 鞠(まり)-手毬(てまり)hand ball, rag ball

Temari (手まり) balls
are a folk art form that originated in China and was introduced to Japan around the 7th century A.D. It was quite popular in the Heian period. "Temari" means "hand ball" in Japanese. Embroidered balls may be used in handball games.
Historically, temari were constructed from the remnants of old kimonos. Pieces of silk fabric would be wadded up to form a ball, and then the wad would be wrapped with strips of fabric. As time passed, traditional temari became an art, with the functional stitching becoming more decorative and detailed, until the balls displayed intricate embroidery. With the introduction of rubber to Japan, the balls went from play toys to art objects, although mothers still make them for their children. Temari became an art and craft of the Japanese upper class and aristocracy, and noble women competed in creating increasingly beautiful and intricate objects.

Temari are highly valued and cherished gifts, symbolizing deep friendship and loyalty. Also, the brilliant colors and threads used are symbolic of wishing the recipient a brilliant and happy life. Traditionally, becoming a craftsman in Japan was a tedious process. Becoming a temari artist in Japan today requires specific training, and one must be tested on one's skills and technique before being acknowledged as a crafter of temari.
Traditionally, temari were often given to children from their parents on New Year's Day. Inside the tightly wrapped layers of each ball, the mother would have placed a small piece of paper with a goodwill wish for her child. The child would never be told what wish his or her mother had made while making the ball.
some balls contained "noisemakers" consisting of rice grains or bells to add to the play value. It is said that traditional temari were wrapped so tightly they would bounce.

Temari are also known as "gotenmari."
source : wikipedia

. gotenmari, goten mari 御殿まり Goten decoration ball .
"Ball of the Palace" - Ornamental Ball -

. Gotenmari from 由利本荘市 Yuri Honjo Town, Akita .

. Edo shokunin 江戸の職人 Edo craftsmen .

temarizukuri 手まり、手毬づくり making Temari balls
Professionals in Edo made three sizes, small, middle and large (almost 20 cm in diameter).
They used silk thread of five different colors. Sometimes they put some shells inside so they would make a sound when thrown in the air.


. 喜多川歌麿 kitagawa Utamaro(1753 - 1806) .

鈴木春信 Suzuki Harunobu (1743 - 1807)

. Join the Ukiyo-E friends on facebook ! .


More links about the wonderful TEMARI balls.

http://www2.nsknet.or.jp/~kid/mari1.html > Click the NEXT button at the end for more

From Kaga Province 加賀手まり

. Ishikawa Folk Art - 石川県 .

CLICK for more photos
CLICK for many more photos !


. Higo temari 肥後てまり  - Kyushu .

. Nanbu himemari 南部姫毬 princess hand ball from Nambu . - Aomori
kukemari くけまり / くけ毬 hand balls from Hachinohe


. Nagano Folk Art - 長野県 .

Matsumoto temari 松本手まり temari balls from Matsumoto

- quote -
Matsumoto-temari are folkcraft balls decorated with yarn, made in the city of Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture. The balls are decorated using scraps of yarn from weaving to create various designs.
In the past, the balls were used as childrens o-tedama (beanbags), but then a way was found to make them bounce, and henceforth they became temari (handballs). Nowadays some of the balls have bells inside them that make a lovely sound when the ball is bounced, and most are used as interior decorations.'
Matsumoto Handball Preservation Society
- source : www.jnto.go.jp/eng -


Shimane 島根県
. ito temari 糸てまり string handballs from Matsue .
- - - - - ai-temari 藍てまり made with Indigo threads


bin temari びん手まり temari in a bottle

There is also a custom in the town of Aishoohoo in Shiga prefecture,
to give a temari ball made by the mother, put in a glass bowl with a cover, to her daughter when she gets married. The young bride can now look at the present when she is in doubt or has problems with her husband, since the ball will teach her "to be round" and the glass will teach her "to see through the difficulties" in her marriage.

They are difficult to make, like a "ship in a bottle".
After the temari is completed, the stuffing inside is taken out, the loose ball put in the bottle and then stuffed again with cotton wool until it is round.
Below is a one with cherry blossoms, sakura

chiru sakura nokoru sakura mo chiru sakura

scattering cherry blossoms
remaining cherry blossoms also become
scattering cherry blossoms

There is even a museum for these temari in a glass bowl in the town now.
愛荘町立愛知川びんてまりの館 (滋賀県愛荘町)

CLICK for more photos


Darumari ”だる毬”Daruma Temari
A set you can buy and make your own ball, with a Daruma pattern.

だるちゃんプロデュース / だるまぐねっと

They also make other things with Daruma
Daruable 貴山圭子(だるチャン)

. Keiko Kiyama 貴山圭子 Daruchan  


. tsurushibina つるし雛 / 吊るし雛 small hanging hina dolls .

shippoo, shichihoo mari 七宝まり / 七宝鞠
hand ball with seven treasures

Just like the auspicious rings (wa 輪) are connected, so should be the peace and harmony with people (wa 和) be connected for the girl. Added with the wish for a good marriage and many children, also good family business.

- - - - -

temari 鞠(まり)-手毬(てまり)"hand ball"

An auspicious symbol for the New Year and a beloved toy of all small kids. May the girl grow up "round" without any problems, and have a fulfilled life.

Related words

***** Temari Balls, decorative hand balls (temari)
Ball catching song, ball bouncing song
(temari uta 手毬歌, 手毬唄、てまりうた)

kigo for the New Year

***** . kemari 蹴鞠 kick ball game .


- #ryokan #temari #mari #handball -


Rumpot (Rumtopf)

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Rumpot (Rumtopf, Germany)

***** Location: Germany
***** Season: Winter
***** Category: Humanity


Rumtopf (German rum and fruits punch)
Traditionally served over ice cream, yogurt, waffles or cake during Advent or on Christmas morning, Rumtopf is an old traditional preparation of fermented rum-soaked fruit aged in a crock pot.

A delicious treat of aged, rum-soaked fruit, in the German and Austrian tradition. You can also soak the fruit in bourbon, in the French tradition, or in your favorite brandy or other alcoholic beverage that is at least 80 Proof (40% alcohol by volume).

Use one or more, or all, of the fruit in the guide below. Traditionally, the process took months to prepare - as each type of fruit ripened and became seasonally available, it would be washed, dried, sugared, and placed in the Rum Pot.

Age the mixture in a cool place for at least three months to ferment properly. It will keep indefinitely as long as it is completely covered with the rum. Then enjoy over ice cream, yogurt, cake, waffles, etc., or by itself with a topping of cream.

We have special pots to prepare this concoction, you can see some and read more recipies on this link:


... ... ... ... ... ... ... Recipe

It is usual to begin with the first fruit of the season, strawberries. Wash and dry these thoroughly, remove all the green stems, put them into a dish, cover them with an equal weight of sugar and then allow them to stand for an hour. Place the fruit and sugar mixture into the Rumtopf, and cover it to a depth of half an inch with rum or your other chosen spirit or liqueur. Make sure that the spirit is at least 40% ABV, as it is the alcohol that preserves the fruit. White refined granulated sugar is most commonly used, but castor sugar will dissolve more easily.
It is important that the fruit remains submerged at all times, and this can be done by placing a plate or saucer on top of the fruits in the Rumtopf. Cover the top of the pot with cling film to prevent evaporation, and store in a cool place. When the next fruit is available, carry out the same procedure, except that from now on it is only necessary to use half as much sugar by weight as fruit. Use ripe, dry but firm fruit and never any that is overripe. Build the fruit up in layers, and do not stir as this will break up the fruit. Each time fruit is added it may be necessary to add more rum.

Continue to add fruits throughout the summer until your Rumtopf is full. Suitable fruits to use include apricots, cherries, grapes, peaches, plums, strawberries, raspberries, redcurrants and loganberries. Pineapple, with the rind and centre core removed, is best cubed and is usually the last fruit added.

It will be ready after 4-6 weeks, but at it's best after 2-3 months, which should be around Christmas.

Read the recipe of an Australian Rumpot

Worldwide use

For other delights, check this list with great RUM recipes.


summer lingers
in my parfait glass--

arousing my palate--
summer's reprise

brimming a parfait glass--
summer's gift

Ed Schwellenbach


perfume of rum
after to much punch
no more punch

a broken rumpot
after the wild party
with a hung

Geert Verbeke

Read more of Geert's Haiku here:


a stain on the table cloth
still from Grandpa -
rumtopf season begins

Gabi Greve

Related words

***** > Hot Drinks List

Please send your contributions to Gabi Greve
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Rose Parade (Pasadena)

nnnnnnnnnnnn TOP nnnnnnnnnnnnn

Rose Parade (in Pasadena, USA)

***** Location: California
***** Season: New Year
***** Category: Observance


On Monday, January 2, 2006 at 8 a.m. (PST), millions of spectators from around the world will celebrate with the 117th Rose Parade themed It’s Magical. Spectators will delight in the tradition and pageantry of the magnificent floral floats, high-stepping equestrians and spirited marching bands. The 2006 Rose Parade will be on January 2 in observance with the Tournament of Roses “Never on Sunday” tradition.

Click here for more »

© 2005 Tournament of Roses


Worldwide use

Things found on the way


pasted rose petals
quilted fabric of my dreams
in Pasadena

Deborah P Kolodji
Haiku Harvest, Vol 2 No 3, Fall & Winter 2001


Related words

***** New Year (Part 1) ... New Year Part 2

Please send your contributions to Gabi Greve
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Rain in various kigo

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。。。 RAIN - AME - 雨

***** Location: Worldwide
***** Season: Various seasons, see below
***** Category: Heavens


"Okutama in the rain" - Kawase Hasui 川瀬 巴水 (1883-1957)

The word RAIN just like that (ame 雨) is not a kigo in Japan.
Expressions like "long rain, strong rain, gentle rain, soft rain, steady rain" without the mentioning of a specific season are also NOT considerd kigo but topics.

"sheets of rain" can be seen during any strong rain on our windows. This expression is also not a kigo.
Raindrops, again no kigo by itself.

But since the rain in a constant partner throughout the year, there are many kigo connected with it.
A friend suggested there are more than 400 kigo connected to the rain.
Quite possible.
We have the rainy season and the typhoons with a lot of damage, we have flooding and rain rituals.
For the farmers of the Edo period, proper rainfall was a matter of life and death, because it affected the rice harvest.
Rain was called the "Water of Heaven", tensui 天水.

Strong emotions are attached to some kinds of rain:

spring drizzle (harusame) leads to romance -
long summer rain (samidare) makes us melancholic -
cold showers in autumn and winter (shigure) show the uncertainty of all things.

Let us go through the seasons in more detail.

Gabi Greve


ama-dare no  .......... 雨だれの
ootsubu kotsubu  .......... 大粒小粒
sugi no eda  ..........  杉の枝

dripping rain
in big drops, small drops –
a cedar branch

Regen -
grosse Tropfen, kleine Tropfen
vom Zedernast

Gabi Greve (Photo from Tanjoo-ji Temple, Japan)


Traces of Dreams - Haruo Shirane
... Harusame (spring rain) referred to the soft, steady drizzle of spring; samidare (literally, rains of the Fifth lunar Month) meant the wet season or the extended rains of summer; and shigure signified the brief, intermittent showers of early winter.
In the poetic tradition these became seasonal topics with specific poetic associations, which were derived from classical precedent and commonly recognized as the most appropriate subjects of composition.

... Spring rain, for example, became associated with soft, dreamy thoughts; the wet season, particularly that of the Fifth Month, implied a sense of unending depression; and the intermittent showers of winter connoted impermanence and uncertainty.

These poetic topics and their associations are, in a fundamental sense, imaginary worlds, which join the poet and the reader, and represent a communal, shared imagination. In writing about the scattering of the cherry blossoms, the Japanese poet is not just writing about a specific, direct experience; he or she is writing a supplement to or a variation on a commonly shared body of poetic associations with respect to the seasons, nature, and famous places based on centuries of poetic practice.

Here, as in the allusive variation (honkadori), originality or individuality is not the touchstone of literary genius, as it often is in the Western tradition. Instead, high value is given to the ability to rework existing subject matter.
source : books.google.co.jp


"Harema" 晴れ間  Lull in The Rain
Katsuyuki Nishijima (b.1945), - 1988.



rain in spring (haru no ame 春の雨)
that could be any kind of rain, usually an unpleasant cold one, during springtime.

spring-rain, spring rain (harusame 春雨)
harusame is the word for Chinese glassnoodles. This is a kind of soft, welcome rain for the rice paddies and fields which are dry from the winter time. It is a gentle rain that can last for a day or longer.
Some famous SPRING RAIN haiku

Umbrella for spring rain, harusame gasa 春雨傘(はるさめがさ)

evening shower in spring, haru yuudachi

..... haru shuu-u 春驟雨 (はるしゅうう),
..... haru no shuu-u 春の驟雨(はるのしゅうう)、
("afternoon showers" , just like that, is a topic for haiku.)

long spring rain, haru no naga-ame, 春の長雨(はるのながあめ)
..... haru rin-u 春霖雨(はるりんう), shunrin 春霖 (しゅんりん)
(haru no nagame 春の長雨 can be used in classical poetry)

"brings the trees to bud", konome moyashi 木の芽萌やし(このめもやし)
gentle rain at the time when trees start to bud.

rain on the cherry blossoms (hana no ame 花の雨)
Either rain directly on the cherry blossoms themselves or
rain during the time of cherry blossoms (hanadoki no ame 花時の雨)
According to the Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, it can also be a metaphor (mitate) for a heavy fall of blossoms/petals. (In this case, petals falling like snow (hanafubuki) can also be used.

This chilly rain evokes a feelilng of sadness of course, since the blossoms are to go. In older haiku and tanka, it had the atmosphere of FUGA 風雅. Lately, it is more of the cumbersome variety of viewing cherry blossoms in a crowd with umbrellas and rain splashing on your legs from too much traffic on the road ...

"Rain on Blossoms" (hana no ame) 花の雨
rain during the time of cherry blossoms, hanadoki no ame

rain on the rape flowers, natane zuyu, 菜種梅雨 (なたねづゆ)

sleet in spring, haru shigure 春時雨 (はるしぐれ)
... haru no shigure 春の時雨(はるのしぐれ)

april shower, april showers
April showers is a term that denotes spring rains in some parts of the northern hemisphere, in particular the UK, during the Gregorian or Julian month of April. One of the major reasons for the, often, very heavy showers and downpours that characterise April is the position of the jet stream.
In early spring the jet stream starts to move northwards allowing large depressions to bring strong winds and rain in from the Atlantic and in one day the weather can change from springtime sunshine to winter sleet and snow. The track of these depressions can often be across Ireland and Scotland bringing bands of rain followed by heavy showers (often of hail or snow) and strong blustery winds. So in one day the weather can change from springtime sunshine to winter sleet and snow.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Country town on a rainy night
Saito (Nishimura) Hodo (act. 1930s)



summer rain, natsu no ame 夏の雨 (なつのあめ)
..... natsusame 夏雨(なつさめ)
"rain on the green", ryoku-u 緑雨(りょくう)

rain in the fifth lunar month  五月雨 samidare
according to the old lunar calendar. Now it refers mostly to the rain during the Rainy Season (from mid-june to mid-july).
persistent summer rain, early summer rain, June rain,

. Samidare - Haiku by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .

rain in the month of satsuki, satsuki ame 五月雨(さつきあめ)
raining in the fifth lunar month, samidaruru さみだるる
rainclouds in the fifth lunar month, samidare gumo 五月雨雲(さみだれぐも)
umbrella for the rain in the fifth lunar month, samidare gasa

samidare can bee seen as a pun with midare 乱れる, fall into disorder; be disarranged, to be troubled, to feel depressed during the long rainy season.

from the Kokin Wakashu poetry collection Summer 153

Ki no Tomonori 紀友則


samidare ni mono omoi oreba hototogisu
yo fukaku nakite izuchi yukuramu

While I sit brooding
through a midsummer shower,
a cuckoo cries out
in the deepening night --
but which way is he passing?

Tr. Inhammer


.. .. .. .. may rain
.. .. .. .. leaves dancing
.. .. .. .. in the forest mist

Gabi Greve (Photo from Koya San, Japan)

rain on new leaves (wakaba ame 若葉雨)
rain on green leaves, aoba ame 青葉雨

. murasame 村雨 (むらさめ) "rain on the village"
a passing shower, that brings a special sound to a village with thatched-roof homes.
a kind of yuudachi 夕立, evening shower.
Murasame, name of a Japanese destroyer (1937–1943) of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

"rain to know the time", toki shiru ame 時知る雨 (ときしるあめ)
gentle rain, where you can walk on with your arm lifted over the head and do not need an umbrella yet. Rain that will stop as soon as it started.
..... "fast rain", haya ame 早雨 (はやさめ )
..... "passing rain", toori ame 通り雨 (とうりあめ)
..... "three bundles" rain, mitsuka ame 三束雨 (みつかあめ)
After a thunderstorm, when you have the time to bind three bundles of cut rice plants together before the next rain starts.

tofu-dregs getting rotten (u no hana kutashi (kudashi) 卯の花腐し
again the rain in the old lunar month of may, when it gets hot and warm and the tofu starts rotting soon. During the old lunar month of april and may, the rain was very long (but not yet the rainy season).

Evening Rain at Atake, by Hiroshige

Cloudburst, Evening Shower (yuudachi) (夕立):
often connected with a thunderstorm in the evening.

shuuu, shuu-u 驟雨 しゅうう sudden shower, cloudburst

. . . and folks have to run for the washing . . .

鈴木晴信 Suzuki Harunobu (1725 - 1770)


kigo for late summer

kiu, ki-u 喜雨 (きう) "beneficial rain"
..... jiu, ji-u 慈雨(じう)
ame yorokobi 雨喜び(あめよろこび)to be happy about the rain
After a long draft in summer, this was the first rain, welcomed by the farmers and their prached fields.

. Rain Rituals (amagoi)
prayers for rain during a drought
prayers for too much rain to stop

. Flood, flooding (koozui 洪水) .
----- demizu 出水
with kigo for all seasons

. Flood prevetnion .


rainy season (tsuyu, bai-u 梅雨)
literally "ume no ame", the rain on the plums. The plums (or rather apricots) are just getting ready to be picked and pickled to make salt-plums, umeboshi. Some haiku books quote the rainy season as a season in itself.
..... See here: Rainy Season (tsuyu) Japan

forebodes of the rainy season (hashiri-zuyu 走り梅雨) : rain during the end of may (old lunar calendar), before the real onslaught of the rainy season.

ending rain of the rainy season (okuri-zuyu, okuri bai-u 送り梅雨) : usually a real strong downpour to signal the end of the rainy season. I remember one of these endless rains when we had a lot of mudslides and overflown rivers with so much damage all over Japan.


"great rain", heavy rainfall, downpour (oo-ame, ooame 大雨)
most feared by the farmers because it brings a huge amount of water in a short time and thus a lot of uncontrollable damage.
There are strong rainfalls in other seasons, but they are most typical for the rainy season.

. cool rain, ryoou ryoo-u 涼雨  

.. .. .. .. ..

spell of sunshine during a rain (kitsune no yome-iri 狐の嫁入り)
literally: The Fox is taking his bride home. A fox-wedding party) .

- quote -
Kitsune no Yomeiri in Literature
The Meiji period Tanka poet Masaoka Shiki wrote:

“When rain falls from a blue sky,
in the Hour of the Horse,
the Great Fox King takes his bride.”

While Kitsune no Yomeiri is the most common term, there are regional versions of the same phenomenon. In Saitama and Ishikawa prefectures it is known as Kitsune no Yomitori (狐の嫁取り; The Taking of a Fox Bride). In Shizuoka it is called Kitsune no Shugen (狐の祝言; The Fox Wedding Celebration).

In Tokushima, the Kitsune no Yomeiri is a less happy occasion. It was called the Kitsune no Soshiki (狐の葬儀; Fox Funeral) and seeing one is considered an omen of death.

- Read the details :
- source : hyakumonogatari.com - Zack Davisson

short spell of rain, almost like the "fox rain"
sobae ame, sobae 日照雨 (そばえあめ)
"rain and shine", tenki ame, 天気雨 (てんきあめ)

. kitsune no yome-iri, kitsune no yomeiri 
狐の嫁入り "the fox taking a bride" .

in Japanese art, festivals and legends



autumn rain, aki no ame, 秋の雨 (あきのあめ)
... akisame 秋雨(あきさめ)
... shuurinn 秋霖(しゅうりん), aki tsuiri 秋黴雨(あきついり)

autumn rain front, akisame sensen 秋雨前線

Autumn Rain Front, September 2006, Japan  

long rain of autumn (aki no naga-ame 秋の長雨)
sometimes equivalent to the rainy season in its power.

autumn-rain (shuurin 秋霖 )
refers to the long rain of autumn.

susuki baiu, bai-u すすき梅雨 "rainy season on the pampas grass"

sleet in autumn, aki shigure 秋時雨 (あきしぐれ)

kigo for early autumn

"washing the mountain", oyama arai 御山洗 (おやまあらい)
Fuji no yama-arai 富士の山洗(ふじのやまあらい)washing mount Fuji
Strong rain in autumn, that clears the mountain air.

. tanabata ame 七夕雨(たなばたあめ)
rain on the Tanabata star festival day .


La pluie d'automne
Autumn rain haiku by Richard Vallance

... ... ...

Ploi mocăneşti / slow-dripping rain in Romania

slow-dripping rain falls
on the asphalt, grey on grey,
on my soul as well…

Oaspete prelung—
o ploaie mocănească
nici un alt prieten

a long staying guest—
a slow-dripping rain
no other friend

câinele nervos:
a adormit chiar şi el:
ploi mocăneşti

the furious dog
yes, even he fell asleep:
long, slow-dripping rains

Cristian Mocanu



Rain in winter, fuyu no ame
冬の雨 (ふゆのあめ)

Winter drizzle (shigure) 時雨  rain mixed with snow, cold rain, snowy drizzle, sleet
..... Including many kigo with this connection. !!!!!

ice-rain, hi-same 氷雨 : rain with icepieces, sort of hail.

rain in the cold , kan no ame 寒の雨 (かんのあめ)
..... kanku no ame 寒九の雨(かんくのあめ)



rain on January 1, onburi 御降り (おんふり)
"honorable downpour".
If it rains, the harvest will be blessed in this year.

..... o-sagari おさがり


Rain as an all-season topic

fragrance of rain, ame no ka 雨の香

ame no ka ni tachimasarikeri matsu no shin

fragrance of rain -
growing up eagerly,
the pine candles

Watanabe Suiha (1882 - 1946)


amayadori 雨宿り taking shelter from the rain

amayadori gaku no moji o yoku oboe

taking shelter from the rain
I begin to remember the writing
of the temple name plate

If you have to stand under the eaves of a temple and wait for the rain to stop, eventually looking up, seeing the name plate, you will remember it. This shows the time that has passed during a long shower.

- - - - -

本ぶりに 成て出て行 雨やとり
honburi ni natte deteyuku amayadori

he left only
after it rained really hard and then
had to take shelter from the rain

This implies a person who waits too long to start something important, and then gets into trouble.

- - - - -

iri mo senu mono no ne o kiku amayadori

asking for the price
of something he does not intend to buy -
taking shelter from the rain

If you have to stand under the eaves of a shop for a long time, you might as well pretend you are interested in buying something.

- - - - -

niwaka ame omoi-omoi ni bakete yuki

sudden rainfall -
all kinds of things take shape
and run along

People make use of what they have to protect themselves from the rain, if they have no umbrella. For example a furoshiki wrapping cloth, the apron of a woman, a straw sack for rice or anything will do.

- - - - -

. niwaka ame setomono uri wa tsune no ashi .
the vendor of pottery

. ushikata no akiramete yuku niwaka ame .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo .

俄雨帰って聞けば降りませぬ - it rains only in some parts
俄雨昼寝の上へほうりこみ - leaves the washing outside
俄雨恨みを言って貸してやり -

Worldwide use

"Paris Street" (1875) by Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894)


India Saijiki

Rain and Haiku

.. .. .. Monsoon, the Rains (July - August)


Florida, Texas and other areas of North America

"iron rain"
a very strong rain that falls in summer, but feels cold, like iron pellets.

Things found on the way

Book about the heavenly and earthly phenomenon in Haiku
Haiku no Tenchi

Tsuji Momoko


Two Raindrops (A Fable)

Two little raindrops were born in a shower,
And one was so pompously proud of his power,

snip snip

At last it came to its journey's end,
And welcomed the sea as an old-time friend.
"An ocean," it said, "there could not be
Except for the millions of drops like me."

Read it all HERE:
source :  www.apples4theteacher.com . Joseph Morris


amadare あまだれ - 雨だれ - 雨垂れ
raindrops falling from the eaves or leaves

. WKD : amadare haiku .

amadare ya san tsubu ochite mo kesa no aki

raindrops --
only three
but fall's here

Tr. Chris Drake

This humorous hokku was written on 7/1 (August 5) in 1804, when Issa was traveling around the area east of Edo. Issa notes in his diary that the official beginning of lunar autumn that year was on 7/2. Perhaps Issa read the hokku to his hosts the next morning, the first day of autumn.

The word amadare in the first line can mean
1) rain dripping from the eaves of a building, from a tree limb, from an umbrella, from a wide rush hat, etc. or
2) simply raindrops (ame-shizuku, uteki).
In the hokku there is no direct indication of what kind of raindrops Issa sees, hears, or feels on his head. Since Issa was traveling around, he could have felt the drops hit him as he walked, or he could been inside, sitting near a porch somewhere. What interests Issa is that only three drops fall. Autumn, especially late autumn, is a season with a lot of cool and increasingly cold showers, so the first morning of autumn only barely manages to live up to its reputation of being a fall-like day. Like so many other things in life which only barely manage to be what they're supposed to be.

Chris Drake

. WKD : Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .


Oku no Hosomichi - 奥の細道 - おくのほそ道
. - - - Station 28 - Mogamigawa 最上川 - - - .
Matsuo Basho on the road in Tohoku:

samidare o atsumete hayashi Mogamigawa

collecting the June-rain
running so fast -
the river Mogamigawa
Tr. Gabi Greve

Gathering the rains of summer,
how swift it is -
Mogami-gawa River

By gathering water from samidare,
Mogami-gawa River flows
very quickly

source : ejje.weblio.jp

The Mogami River,
gathering rain of May
and even more rapid

Tr. Wikipedia, Mogami River

Swiftly flowing Mogami River !
All water is from
early summer rain

source : www.travel-around-japan.com

. . . . .

春雨や 蜂の巣つたふ 屋根の漏り
harusame ya hachi no su tsutau yane no mori

spring rain -
drips from a wasp's nest
through the leeking roof

Matsuo Basho
Tr. Gabi Greve

MORE in the WKD Archives :

. Samidare haiku by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 .


- - - - - - Yosa Buson and akisame 秋雨 - - - - -

akisame ya mizusoko no kusa o fumaretaru

rain in autumn -
I step on the grass in the water
to cross (the river)

akisame ya waga sugemino wa mada nurasaji

rain in autumn -
my straw raincoat
not yet wet

. mino 蓑/簑 straw raincoat .

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .


hato no koi karasu no koi ya haru no ame

pigeons mating
crows mating -
rain in spring

Kobayashi Issa
Tr. Gabi Greve


aki shigure kyoo mo eki made onaji michi

cold autumn rain -
today again
the same way to the station
(Tr. Gabi Greve)
by Katsumi 勝美


two monks
no other master
than the rain

beggarly pilgrims
walking in the rain
fragrant grasses

Geert Verbeke

Read more of Geert's haiku about rain


autumn rains ~
so many birds in wild song ~
a barking dog

autumn drizzle ~
a crow makes an
aimless traversing

Narayanan Raghunathan, India 2006


Rain Drops

Slowly sliding down
from one leaf to another,
earth waits patiently.

Minal Sarosh, India, January 2008


in the autumn sun -
a samurai's garden

Treading on God's Gift
" 'How beautiful the rain looks,' thought the Mulla, watching from his window. 'It washes everything clean and makes the flowers and trees grow. It is truly one of the most beautiful signs of God's grace.'
'Rain is one of God's great gifts. I can't believe that people try to run away from it.
No wonder God asks in His holy book:
How many of My gifts will you deny?'

. Rain - a Gift of God .


meeting rains
my umbrella sings
inside a songless me


Rajendra Raju Samal, India, June 2009


from the Kigo Hotline 2010!

cold drops of rain
together with wind
shaking trees

al serban - romania

rain and wind --
i prefer to avoid
roadside trees

Sunil Uniyal-India (New Delhi)


ever more rain -
I am losing the battle
against the weeds

Gabi Greve

. Sharing a wet July 2012 .

Related words

***** Sleet, rain mixed with snow, cold rain, wy drizzle (shigure)  

***** Dew, dewdrops (tsuyu) Japan heavy with dew, tsuyukeshi,

***** Cloud, clouds(kumo) Japan, worldwide. Various Kigo.

. SAIJIKI - HEAVEN in all seasons  



Radish (daikon)

. daikon 大根と伝説 Legends about radish .

Radish (daikon, Japan)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Plant


Radish, Reddish, daikon 大根 
Raphanus sativas

The long big white radish (daikon 大根) was a winter staple of poor farmers. Even today it is a very popular vegetable. It is cut in small stripes and dried (kiriboshi daikon 切干大根) for later use as a staple.
The skin of gourd was also peeled and dried (kanpyoo 干瓢).

Different varieties of daikon grow at different times of the year and though the cold months usually yield the finest flavor and crispest texture, daikon as a vegetable is at market nearly year-round.

In the Miura Peninnsula, south of Tokyo, a special variety, the Miura Daikon 三浦大根
is grown. I loved to walk through the large fields of this area in winter.
Throughout Japan a kind of radish with a green neck (aokubi daikon 青首大根) is grown as a speciality.
More kigo with radish as a food are given below.

Look at radish from Miura

Look at radish with a green neck

In the Heian period, the slender upper arms of a lady were compared to a radish.
In our modern times, the thick legs of a woman are compared to a radish, daikon ashi 大根足.
. . . CLICK here for daikon ashi leg Photos !

The slender part is used for grating (daikon oroshi 大根おろし), the middle part is used for oden hodgepodge and the part toward the leaves is used for eating raw in salads. Some even eat the leaves, fried in oil.

More kigo with RADISH


futamata daikon 二股大根(ふたまただいこん)
bifurcated radish
yome daikon 嫁大根(よめだいこん)"radish like a bride"
and its relation to the deity

. Daikoku 大黒天 Mahakala


kigo for all winter

Drying Radish as winter food.


daiko hiki daiko hiki だいこ引き(だいこひき)
harvesting radish
. WKD : Winter and Farmers Work with Radish


observance kigo for mid-winter

Daikodaki (daikotaki) 大根焚 Cooking large radishes
Temple Sansen-In, Kyoto, Feb. 10 - 13
三千院の初午大根焚き, 年2月10日~13日

. Daikon and temple festivals .

- about a hokku by Kobayashi Issa -

Although these long white radishes are usually called daikon ('big root') in modern Japanese, in Issa's time they were commonly called daiko, which has three syllables. This is usually the pronunciation found in haikai, since daikon is four syllables long and harder to fit into lines. Even today the old pronunciation can be found in the name of a ceremony at Ryoutokuji Temple in Kyoto to give thanks to Shinran, the founder of the temple and of the True Pure Land school of Buddhism. On Dec. 9, the Daiko-daki (Daikon Cooking) Ceremony is held, during which fresh slices of daikon radish are boiled in a broth that is given to visitors to the temple and placed before an image of Shinran.

ama-tachi ya futari kakatte hiki daiko

. Chris Drake .


Red Radish (hatsuka-daikon 二十日大根)
By LINDA INOKI, The Japan Times, December 7, 2005

kiku no ato daikon no hoka sara ni nashi

After the chrysanthemums,
Apart from radishes,
There is nothing.

By Matsuo Basho (1644-94)

Winter offers few flowers for the poet, but Basho humorously points to the humble daikon, or Japanese White Radish, to evoke the coldness of earth, root and man. However the little hatsuka-daikon is a warm-looking radish, which is well known for its crisp, peppery roots. On the outside, these 3-6 cm roots are beautiful shades of deep red or pink, but on the inside they are pure white.

The plant (Raphanus sativus) is closely related to a widespread wild radish that grows across Europe and Asia and has been cultivated for at least 5,000 years. In fact it is said that poor people in ancient Egypt survived on bread, onions and radishes.

Through selection and natural cross-fertilization, the color of radishes has changed over the centuries from black to white to red. The variety pictured here is a two-toned French breakfast radish. However, there is even a modern hybrid, developed by the Beijing Vegetable Research Centre, which has red flesh instead of the usual white. Its name is singli mei, which means "beautiful heart." Radishes are tough, frost-resistant and grow incredibly quickly. If you plant the seeds in one month you can be eating the roots the next! That explains the Japanese name, which means "20-day daikon."



Daikon... Loh Bak... or Chinese radish
(Raphanus sativus radicola )

Daikon looks like a short thick pipe--beige colored, heavy, sensuous. Sliced and eaten raw, it is fresh, snappy, with a juicy crispness--halfway between a radish and a turnip in texture and bite, and with a good long range between the two.
If you get a green daikon (or a green and white one)--be sure to cook it before eating.

Worldwide use


Rettich. Radieschen.

Things found on the way

Daruma Daikon ... a new variety
Daruma as a radish


daikon yakusha 大根役者 ham actor, bad actor
kabu or daikon - thus related to kabuki and the Kabuki theaters is Asakusa, Edo/Tokyo.

- quote
On August 31, 1888, it was reported that the government had granted a permit to Fukuchi Ochi (Genichiro) and others to establish a "new improved theater" at 3-chome, Kobikicho, Kyobashi-ku (present Chuo-ku Ginza). The plan attracted a great deal of attention and in the September 18 edition of The Daily Yomiuri it was revealed that the theater would be named "Kabuza."
However, the theater was eventually called "Kabukiza" for some reason, but perhaps not because "the theater should not be named Kabuza to avoid employing ham actors."
(In Japanese, kabu or daikon means radish and ham actors are referred to as daikon yakusha.) (Ref. Lamp no Shitanite by Okamoto Kido.)
- source : www.ndl.go.jp/scenery/e

source : www.muragon.net/blog1
double-daikon at the gables of the temple

Even today, large radishes are offered at
Matsuchiyama Shooten 待乳山聖天 Honryuuin 本龍院 Honryu-In
near the Sumida river.
The deity Bishamonten is venerated here as one of the seven gods of good luck.

HP of the temple
- source : members2.jcom.home.ne.jp/matuti

kinchaku gata kintama 巾着型貯金玉 money pouch in form of a kinchaku bag
amulet to keep your money
Even with the decoration of the double-radish.

. - - - Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .


Hungry to learn more about Japan?

A TASTE OF CULTURE culinary arts program combines spicy tidbits of food lore with practical tips and skill-building lessons on how to prepare Japanese food. Programs offer a unique opportunity for foreign residents and visitors from overseas to explore and enjoy Japan's culture through its food.

Elizabeth Andoh

Here is the newsletter of Elizabeth from December 2006:

My 30-something nephew, Shohei, just delivered 2 huge, Miura daikon radishes, their bushy, verdant tops lopped off just below where they had been connected to their firm, bulbous roots. In exchange, he carted away several boxes of nori, both seasoned and plain-toasted, two cans of taraba-gani crabmeat, five 1-liter bottles of cooking oil, several men's linen handkerchiefs, a Chanel necktie, a set of lace-trimmed hand towels, and a package of German-style sausages.

Here in Tokyo, and indeed throughout most of Japan, an easy-to-grow-and-store, cylindrical, all-purpose variety of daikon called aokubi (green-necked) has pretty much taken over the marketplace. Every once in a while, a less than perfectly formed aokubi can be seen at natural food shops, typical split into stumpy "legs." Although these firm radishes can provide fine eating both cooked and raw, they tend to be bland and often a bit woody. Other varieties such as Nerima, karami, Shogoin, or Sakurajima each have distinctive characteristics making them more suitable for some dishes than for others.

Long, slender Nerima daikon are fine when shredded in salads, but most of the crop is air-dried then made into golden yellow takuan pickles by submerging them in nuka (rice bran) paste for several months. Karami daikon is best grated, with or without a drizzle of soy sauce, and gives quite a kick to whatever food it is eaten with. Globe-shaped Shogoin daikon is wonderful thinly sliced in salads or cut in wedges and braised. Huge, bulbous Sakurajima daikon is most-often sliced into thin circles and pickled. And, a nearly 65-pound, Sakurajima daikon is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest radish in the world!

My personal favorite, though, is Miura daikon, yet another regional variety. Grown primarily on the Miura Peninsula southwest of Tokyo, it is sweet-and-spicy and crisp-and-juicy when shredded (though it can get a bit watery when grated). Miura is especially flavorful when steamed and sauced with pungent miso, or soy-simmered with buri (yellowtail, buri daikon 鰤大根) or slow-stewed with fish sausages in oden. Even the peels of Miura daikon are tasty, especially stir-fried.

Ready now for a bit of anthropomorphic fun? In 1999, the toy company Takara Tomy created an animated character based on a straight-laced, split-legged radish called Aokubi daikon, and less than year later, added a fun-loving, sake-and-shochu-guzzling radish called Sakurajima daikon to what became a series of veggie-based characters.

Check out their website:

As you place your computer cursor over a tuft of daikon greens, the root pops up. Click on the 3rd tuft from the left for an animated cartoon.

For yet more bizarre fun, click here, and scroll down to where vertical banners decorate a stage. Choose the 3rd from the left, and click on the TV screen for a series of ridiculous tanka poems:

When you are ready for some serious daikon cooking and eating pleasure, take a look at my updated Seasonal Japanese Kitchen page at http://www.tasteofculture.com/ ; I include links to images of several varieties of radish, and recipes for a multi-course feast.

Seasonal Pleasures: DAIKON

Thanks, Elizabeth, for your delicious newsletter !


Vegetables entering Nirvana
By Ito Jakuchu

CLICK for original LINK  .. kajipon.sakura.ne.jp

Itoo Jakuchuu (1716 - 1800)

In the Zen sect, Buddha is sometimes represented as a large radish.
This is a nehanzu of Shakyamuni.


Matsuo Basho
in the year Genroku 6
At a restaurant in Edo, in the company of the Samurai from Iga, Fujido Chobei, Shimizu Shuuchiku and Yanada Kameo.
藤堂長兵衛守壽(俳号玄虎), 清水周竹 and 梁田亀毛.

This is the hokku of Basho:

mononofu no daikon nigaki hanashi kana

Eating roots; talking all day with a warrior

the bitterness of pickles
in the talk

Tr. Reichhold

I ate vegetable roots and talked with samurai all day long

samurai's gathering--
their chat has the pungent taste
of daikon radish

Tr. Ueda

Eating vegetable roots, I talked all day with samurai

a samurai gathering:
pungent as a radish is
their talk

Tr. Barnhill

An excerpt from Reichhold's comment:
"...Basho uses the word 'nigaki', which means 'bitter'."

A comment by Ueda, from his biography of Basho:
"Here the poet, who was used to carefree chats among ordinary townsmen, was invited to join a
group from the ruling warrior class and found that their conversation, reflecting their neo-Confusion upbringing, was somewhat rigorous and dignified even on this informal occasion. But Basho did not alienate himself from the group; he chose to enjoy that rather stiff atmosphere, humorously comparing it to the taste of a radish."

Barnhil says that this is "
An opening hokku for a linked verse conducted with two samurai."

Larry Bole: Basho Haiku about Food

Samurai talk –
of horse-radish.

Tr. Lucien Stryk

Едкая редька...
и суровый, мужской
разговор с самураем

Tr. Вера Маркова

source : dmitrismirnov

A samurai party--
pungent as daikon radish
their conversation!

source : http://www.soupsong.com/fdaikon.html


kuratsubo ni koboozu noru ya daiko hiki

in the saddle
a little is boy riding -
radish pullers

Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉, 1693

source : itoyo/basho

Memorial Stone at shrine Inari Jinja in Maoka town


mi ni shimite daikon karashi aki no kaze

Penetrating deep,
the sharp taste of white radish—
winds of autumn

Tr. Blyth

The speaker tastes a daikon, a white radish, which is so sharp and spicy that it seems to pierce the body. The first five syllables, “Penetrating deep” (mi ni shimite), are related not only to “The sharp taste of white radish” (daikon karashi) but to “The winds of autumn” (aki no kaze), which also penetrate the body.
The two parts of a toriawase interact in the manner of a hibiki link, in which the emotional and sensory intensity of the previous verse “reverberates” in the added verse.
The whiteness of the daikon is also echoed in “The winds of autumn,” traditionally referred to as “colorless wind” (iro naki kaze).

The fatigued metaphor of “autumn wind,” a cliché from the classical, “high” (ga) tradition, is here reenergized by the visceral, unusual metaphor of “the sharp taste of radish” (daikon karashi), a haigon from everyday, “low” (zoku) culture. The heterogeneous images combine to form a larger metaphor for the hardship and bitterness of travel.


source : yamanoasioto

The daikon from the Kiso region with its poor soil of the mountain fields is especially pungent.
But the cold wind is even more penetrating.
Basho on the Sarashina Kiko, Aida village. With a stone memorial

the pungent taste of this radish
penetrates right through my body -
autumn wind

Tr. Gabi Greve

MORE - hokku about food by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


daiko hiki daiko de michi o oshie-keri

with a just-yanked
pointing the way

Kobayashi Issa (1763-1827)
translated by David Lanoue

persian caligraphy by Massih Talebian


dinner time -
the silence of monks
munching takuan

夕飯や 静かにたくあん 噛む坊主

yuhan ya shizuka ni takuan kamu boozu
(Tr. and haiga : Nakamura Sakuo)

Gabi Greve, 2005
(for takuan, see below)


a daikon for the snowman's nose -- rather pale

"chibi" (pen-name for Dennis M. Holmes)

Related words

Kigo for All Winter

***** pickled leaves of radish, kukizuke 茎漬

***** pickled radish, takuanzuke 沢庵漬
..... Takuan was a famous Zen Priest, who invented this dish. It is very popular. Zen monks are supposed to eat their slices of Takuan radish without making any noise. There are usually two slices on the plate, used to carefully clear out the bolws afer eating and then munching the Takuan in silence.
If you want to know the secret of eating Takuan in silence, contact me :o) !

The Unfettered Mind. by Takuan Soho

***** boiled radish, furofuki 風呂吹

***** to pickle radish, daikon tsukeru 大根漬ける


Kigo for Early Winter

***** to dry radish, daikon hosu, daiko hosu 大根干す

***** dried radish, hoshidaikon 干大根

***** cut and dried radish, kiriboshi 切干

A speciality from Saikai town, 西海市 Nagasaki
yudeboshi daikon ゆで干し大根
cooked, dried radish stripes


Kigo for Late Spring

***** radish flowers, daikon no hana 大根の花
..... of a bright blue-purple color, a great view in spring beside the yellow rape flowers. They grow almost like weed once they have taken to a place.

suzushiro すずしろ/ 清白 radish of spring
one of the
Seven Herbs of Spring.
Haru no Nanakusa 春の七草


***** daikon maku 大根蒔く (だいこんまく)sowing radish seeds
kigo for early autumn


***** Gutsy Radish (dokonjoo daikon) Japan.
kigo for all Winter.


kigo with TURNIP 蕪 kabu

***** . WASHOKU
Favorite Radish Dishes from Edo

Back to the Worldkigo Index

WASHOKU ... Japanese Food SAIJIKI

TAKUAN ... pickled radish from Gunma prefecture


. daikon 大根と伝説 Legends about radish .

- #daikon #radish #takuan -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .