Mulled wine (gloegg)

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Mulled wine (Gløgg / Glühwein)
Mulled Mead (Honey wine, Honigwein)

***** Location: Scandinavia, Germany and elsewhere
***** Season: Winter
***** Category: Humanity


Glögg is a Swedish drink for a cold winter evening. It is heated, spiced and sweetened wine, a bit like the German Glühwein. Below is a recipe, though maybe the measurements don't make sense outside Sweden, and some of the ingredients may not be standard stock. But it will be nice even if it's not exactly like the original, so it doesn't really matter!

What to use:

3 sticks cinnamon
2-3 pieces dried Seville orange peel
2-3 pieces dried ginger (not ground)
some 10 cardamom seeds (whole)
some 10 cloves (whole)
1 cup (2.5dl) water

Also: sugar

1 bottle of wine (or similar amount of black currant or grape juice for a non-alcoholic alternative)

Some of these things are hard to find in some places, such as dried whole ginger (and how big is "a piece" anyway?). When in doubt, use fresh rather than powdered dry, as the powder makes it nigh well impossible to sieve/filter it all at -- the whole thing just clogs up. If you can't find dried peels of Seville orange (this has been known to happen), it is possible to substitute a smaller quantity of the thin orange part of the peel of an ordinary orange. In the end you'll probably have substituted just about everything, but that will work too, I've tried it.
Isabelle Prondzynski

What to do:

* Heat spices and water to boiling, then turn off heat and let stand overnight
* Sieve/filter out the spices
* Add the wine (or juice)
* Add sugar to taste (that should be a minimum of one decilitre (=2/5 of a cup); we're talking Swedish cooking here!). You probably have to heat it first so that the sugar dissolves, then see if you want to put some more
* Heat. Note that alcohol evaporates at 72 degrees Celsius (or is it 78?) so you want to be a bit careful!
* Some naughty people would spike the whole thing with a splash of vodka... (optional)

Serve hot with raisins and blanched almonds (dropped into the cups after serving). Glögg is normally served in tiny cups (the cups from your Turkish/Japanese/etc. souvenir tea set will be perfect), and some tiny spoons are useful for fishing out the raisins and almonds.

The socio-cultural context for glögg is either as a pre-dinner drink in the winter, or as a separate event, usually at about 4 or 5 pm, a bit like a cocktail party. On the side, pepparkakor is the kind of thing to nibble, but you'll have to look for the recipe for them somewhere else!

The extract keeps very well (that's why they used to sail all the way to Indonesia to get spices -- they work as preservatives), so you can make more and keep it in a bottle, handy for whenever you fancy a glögg on a cold evening (which is probably only about four times in a season; it's rather sweet); it will keep for a year at least.



Danish recipe, with English translation


Every family has its own recipe -- including the secret ingredient to raise the alcohol level. It becomes easy to have an extended chat outdoors by minus 15 degrees C -- if one keeps one's temperature (and spirits!) up with the help of glögg... and perhaps follows it up in the sauna!

This would be the case particularly in Finland (web site below, where we also find recipes for the Christmas biscuits and buns which go nicely with glögg...)...

** ** ** Glögg Party at Christmas

1 bottle red wine
2-3 tablespoons Madeira (optional)
1/2 cup raw sugar, or to taste
1/3 cup raisins
1-2 sticks cinnamon
5-6 whole cloves peelings of I orange
1/4 cup blanched, slivered almonds
1/4 cup vodka to spike it up (optional)

In a large kettle, combine all the ingredients except the vodka. Heat slowly, until the drink is steaming hot. Stir every now and then, and taste with a spoon whenever you feel like it. Do not let the drink get even close to boiling. Just keep it warm. Before serving, add vodka if you wish. Servings: 1 to 6.

Read some more Finnish recipies here:

Worldwide use

Glögg has a definite relationship to the German Glühwein (see below).

Glühwein (Traditional Glow Wine)

1 litre good red wine
1/8 litre water
60 grams sugar (approx 2oz)
1/4 stick cinnamon
3 cloves
Peelings of half a lemon or two lemon slices

Bring the sugar, spices and water to a boil (instead of the water experts say that you really should use red wine for a better flavor) Then let this mixture steep for 30 minutes. Finally, mix in the remainder of the red wine and carefully reheat to just under the boiling point.

If desired, flavor with lemon or orange juice to taste.
Glühwein is sometimes also made from raspberry, blueberry and blackberry wines.

Below are Variations of Glühwein :

1. French Glow Wine : Use Bordeaux with cinnamon, rubbed nutmeg and bay leaves as the spices.

2. Seehund (Sea Dog) : Substitute white wine for the red, and prepare as traditional glow wine. Depending on the acidity of the wine, a little lemon juice can be added to taste.

3. Negus : Prepare with port wine (1/2 wine, 1/2 water) and use rubbed nutmeg and lemon peelings for the spices.

4. Honig Glühwein (Honey Glow wine): prepare with red wine, 150gm honey (5oz), some cinnamon stick and two lemon slices. Heat to just under boiling.




** ** ** Mulled wine

In Frank Capra’s holiday film, It’s A Wonderful Life, a guardian angel walks into a bar and asks for mulled wine “heavy on the cinnamon, easy on the cloves.” For many, hot wine, which would be unthinkable in any other season, is a heavenly drink at this time of year.

It has been a wintry favourite for a long time with almost as names as it has recipes: glögg in Scandinavia, gluhwein in Austria, a bishop in England when made with port, and the Medieval drinks of Clarrey which included honey and spices, Caudell which was thickened with eggs and Ypocras which comes closest to the mulled wine or cider we know today.

However the drink is made, the spices always include the highly aromatic ones common in Britain and Northern Europe hundreds of years ago: cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, allspice, mace, perhaps cardamom and a citrus peel. Honey or sugar is often added for a sweeter drink but these aren’t always used. What used to be a common drink, however, now seems exoctic. Although fancy packaging has made the ingredients in mulled wine spice sachets seem esoteric and expensive; most of us probably have everthing we need on our spice shelves.

You can experiment with the spices mentioned above but a typical recipe for mulled wine would be a tablespoon of honey or sugar, a stick of cinnamon, and a large pinch each of ginger, nutmeg, mace, cloves and cardamom for each cup of wine or cider or even apple juice. Fortunately the wine does not have to be expensive. Most red depanneur plonk works quite nicely thank you.

It is important not to boil the wine, but simply heat the spices in the wine over a low heat and stir occasionally until the sugar or honey is completely dissolved. For a clearer drink, strain the hot wine through a coffee filter before serving. As you raise a glass, you might consider proffering this heart-warming toast:

Beaujolais, Beaujolais, appellation controllée
Beaujolais est joli, parfumé et chaud
Bonne santé et cheerio.



The word "mulled" simply means heated and spiced. Many liquids can be mulled - mead, cider, and of course wine. Mulled wine is a traditional favorite in cooler locations, and goes well with the various celebrations that come around the end of the year.

Mulled wines have a long history. In medieval times these wines were called Ypocras or Hipocris, named after the physician Hippocrates. They were thought to be very healthy, and indeed, with wine at the time being far more sanitary than water, these heated drinks probably did keep people healthy through the cold winters.

Moving forward to the 1500s, cookbooks listed methods of mulling "Clarrey", or Bordeaux. Recipes involved honey, cinnamon, cardamon, galingale and of course French wine. Mulled wine was a favorite in Victorian England, and Negus - a type of mulled wine - was even served to children at their birthday parties. Today, mulled wine is a staple at many holiday parties.


Things found on the way

German Poem about Christmas Problems because Santa had too much Gluehwein. His sledge went off the road and he could not deliver the presents to the kids in time. He promises never to have too much mulled wine... :o)


Lauthals am Fluchen
Der Schlitten liegt im Graben
Rentiere fliehen

Nur einmal nicht aufgepaßt
Und die Weihnacht war versaut

Nie wieder Glühwein
Bevor die Tour zu Ende,
Die Kinder glücklich

Schwört der Weihnachtsmann
In den Trümmern des Schlittens



a toast
to this millennium
mulled wine



by the fire visiting
with old friends
cups of mulled wine

Maureen Yates


Short days, cold dark nights,
Frost sparkles and breathing steams,
Mulled wine by the fire.

© Elfstone 20/8/03


Advent Kerzenschein
Heimlichkeiten Vorfreude
Nüsse und Glühwein



sugar plum fairies--
enjoying mulled wine
with Tschaikowsky

Ed Schwellenbach

Related words

***** Mulled Mead (Mulled honey wine)

Often drunk at small stalls during the Christmas fairs inGermany. Sometimes fruit is included, for example souer cherries. Mead is good for your health too and brings you sweet dreams.
Heisser lieblich Met oder der Met mit Sauerkirsche heiss ....


More about mead:

Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. It is sometimes known as "honeywine" (for obvious reasons) and is generally pronounced "meed", though South Africans usually pronounce it "med", to rhyme with "red". The word mead refers to the sugary fluid excreted by flowers. In symbology mead is the tipple of the gods.

A mead that also contains spices (like cloves, cinnamon or nutmeg) or herbs (such as oregano or even lavender or chamomile) is called metheglin. The etymon of this word is possibly "medicine" as healing herbs were often stored as metheglin so they would be available over the winter (as well as making them much easier to swallow).

A mead that contains fruit (such as strawberry, blackcurrant or even rose-hips) is called melomel and was also used as a delicious way to "store" summer produce for the winter.

Mulled mead is a popular winter holiday drink, where mead is warmed (traditionally by having a hot poker plunged into it) and flavoured with spices.
Hippocras is spiced grape wine sweetened with honey. A grape-based wine with added honey is called a pyment.
Cyser is made with apple juice and honey; braggot or bracket is made with malted barley and honey.

Mead was very popular in Northern Europe where grapes could not be grown, but it faded in popularity once wine imports became economical. Mead was especially popular with the Slaves and was called in Polish miód (pronounced myoot), meaning honey. Mead was a popular drink among the Polish szlachta. During the Crusades Polish prince Leszek the White explained to the pope that Polish knights couldn't participate in the crusades because there is no mead in Palestine.

In Finland a sweet mead called Sima (cognate with zymurgy), is still an essential seasonal brew connected with the Finnish Vappu festival. It is usually spiced by adding both the flesh and rind of a lemon. During secondary fermentation raisins are added to control the amount of sugars and to act as an indicator of readiness for consumption — they will rise to the top of the bottle when the drink is ready.
Mead is probably also the origin of the word honeymoon as the father of the bride was said to give as a dowry a month's supply of the liquor. Mead is mentioned in many old north Anglo-Saxon stories, including Beowulf.

Mead can have a wide range of flavors, depending on the source of the honey, additives (including fruit and spices), yeast employed during fermentation, and aging procedure. Mead can be difficult to find commercially, though some producers have been successful marketing it.

Many meads retain some measure of the sweetness of the original honey, and some can even be considered as dessert wines. Drier meads are also available, and some producers offer sparkling meads, which (like champagne) can make for a delightful celebratory toast.

A common toast when drinking mead is WASSAIL! Wishing you Health !

steam from the glasses
around the punch bowl

Haiku from Chibi


Recipe for Wassail Mead

The History of the Word "Wassail"
Apple tree wassailing is a ceremony which involves drinking to the health of the apple trees.
The Anglo-Saxons used the phrase Wæs hal! as an everyday greeting. Wæs is a form of the verb "to be" related to modern English was. Hal is the ancestor of the modern English words whole and hale. Thus, Wæs hal! literally meant "Be healthy!". The Vikings who later settled in Northern England used a dialectal varient of the same phrase: Ves heill!. Since the Anglo-Saxons and Norse shared a custom of welcoming guests by presenting them with a horn of ale (or cup of mead, or goblet of wine), the greeting evolved into a toast.

The phrase was eventually contracted into one word,wassail, and came to refer to the act of toasting to someones health, wassailing, and to a type of alcoholic beverage (spiced ale or punch) used to toast people's health on special occasions. The use of wassailing to mean "caroling" (as in "Here we go a-wassailing...") stems from the habit of singing songs whilst drinking from the "wassail-bowl" during Christmas and New Year celebrations.


Thus Wassail itself is also a kigo for winter.

xx xx xx xx

Mead is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages of humankind. It has been made in Ethiopia for many thousand years. There it is called Tej.

In Ethiopia, T'ej is made in private homes for family consumption and is not sold commercially. Each household has its own family recipe and variations in taste result from the type of honey used, temperature, climate, materials and utensils and the time involved in making the mead. Ethiopians purchase gallons of honey at a time to produce the mead and the taste can be as individual as the imagination of the person making it. The same recipe can vary from mother to daughter, for the mead is made from instinct as much as from a recipe.

The extract of a native Ethiopian tree, the Gesho (similar to Hazel) imparts a bitter quality to the T'ej making it the ideal drink to complement the spicy food of the Ethiopians. The honey- sweet, bitter, dry tone of T'ej is enhanced by the food. Ethiopian meals often consist of pureed vegetable greens, lentils, peas, cabbages, bean sprouts, squash and meat - chicken, seafood and lamb. This is all served on a communal plate with injera, a sourdough, uncooked, unleavened bread. Injera is rolled and folded in the manner of a napkin and placed on the rim of the dinner plate or on a side plate.

Read a lot about Ethiopian Tej here:


***** Rumpot (Rumtopf) Germany

***** Hot Drinks, a List


Bratapfelmet -fruchtiger Honigwein
feinster Druidenfeuer (Kräuterschnaps)
Mjedpiir - Biermischgetränk aus Bier und Honigwein
Drachenglut in Replik-Flasche

und mehr


***** Honey
Non-seasonal Topic

unless specified with the name of a seasonal flower.

heather honey, Ireland
kigo for autumn

Heather, Erika Europa.


***** Winter honey from YEMEN

***** Bee (mitsubachi)

***** Honey Spas   Russia
Kigo for Autumn

honey spa
our savior savors
honey comb

"chibi" (pen-name for Dennis M. Holmes) 


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WASHOKU ... Japanese Food SAIJIKI



Mountains alive in all seasons

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This is a set of kigo with a personification.

This personification of the mountains goes through the four seasons,
in fact is is a quote from Gayuu Roku 臥遊録, a Chinese work from the Northern Sung dynasty by the painter Gaku Ki
Guo Xi 郭煕画譜 (c. 1023 - c. 1085)


Early Spring

Guo Xi (Chinese: 郭熙; pinyin: Guō Xī; Wade–Giles: Kuo Hsi)
(c. 1020–c. 1090) Chinese landscape painter from Henan Province who lived during the Northern Song dynasty. One text entitled "The Lofty Message of Forest and Streams" (Linquan Gaozhi 林泉高致) is attributed to him. The work covers a variety of themes centered around the appropriate way of painting a landscape.

The following is an excerpt from his treatise, "mountains and waters":

The clouds and the vapours of real landscapes are not the same at the four seasons.
In spring they are light and diffused,
in summer rich and dense,
in autumn scattered and thin,
in winter dark and solitary.

When such effects can be seen in pictures, the clouds and vapours have an air of life.
The mist around the mountains is not the same at the four seasons.

The mountains in spring are light and seductive as if smiling:
the mountains in summer have a blue-green colour
which seems to be spread over them;
the mountains in autumn are bright and tidy as if freshly painted;
the mountains in winter are sad and tranquil as if sleeping.

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

In Japan, people used to call the nearby mountain forests and groves "yama", they were part of the satoyama system, that sustained the life of a mountain village.

. Satoyama 里山 (さとやま) .


Mountains asleep (yama nemuru)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Winter
***** Category: Earth


mountains and hills are sleeping,
yama nemuru 山眠る

sleeping mountains, nemuru yama 眠る山(ねむるやま)

It evokes a quiet atmosphere of things coming to a well-deserved rest.
Gabi Greve


water is dripping down a mountain
yama shitataru 山滴る

yama shitatari 山滴り(やましたたり)
kigo for summer
moss dripping with water, shitatari 滴り (したたり)
kenteki 涓滴(けんてき)、
dripping from rocks, iwa shitatari 巌滴り(いわしたたり)
dripping from cliffs, gake shitatari 崖滴り(がけしたたり)
dripping from moss, koke shitatari 苔滴り(こけしたたり)
This kidai is difficult to translate in a short version in English. It refers to the freshness of cool water dripping down a mountain over moss.
It is not used for raindrops or dewdrops.

mountains take on make-up and color,
yama yosou 山粧う (やまよそう)

kigo for autumn
..... yama yoso-ou 山粧う(やまよそおう)
..... yama irodoru 山彩る(やまいろどる
..... yoso-ou yama 粧う山(よそおうやま)

shitatari ya futto kuuki o kamu roojin

water dripping over moss -
the old man bites
a bit of air 

Ishida Yoshihiro 石田よし宏

Worldwide use

Things found on the way


yama nemuru mabayuki tori o hanachite wa

Yamada Mizue 山田 みづえ


yama nemuru waga ude ni tsuma nemurikeri

la montagne dort...
et ma femme dort aussi,
là, entre mes bras

mountains asleep ...
and in my arms my wife
also asleep
(Tr. Gabi )



山眠る 尾根ゆく人の 見え隠れ

mountains sleep -
people walking on the path
sometimes hidden, sometimes seen
(Tr. Gabi)



yama nemuru kangofu to futari nobe no michi

mountains asleep -
I walk with the nurse
on a nature path


mountains asleep
in my white coat
I visit my patients
(Tr. Gabi)

Written by Mahara sensei, a local doctor in the area of Mt. Aso. He writes haiku for his patients and himself to feel some relief from harsh reality.

Link with more of his haiku and pictures from Mr. Aso in Kyushu and light effects.

Related words

***** mountains smiling, yama warau 山笑う - 山笑ふ
kigo for spring

Spring 2007 , Okayama, Japan

The plants and trees start to bud in all shades of green, pink, white, the sound of birds fills the mild spring air and as people smile, so they see their sourrounding mountains reflecting their onw emotion of joy.

山笑う わたしだって 笑いますよ
yama warau - watashi datte waraimasu yo

.. .. .. mountains smiling-
.. .. .. and me of course
.. .. .. smiling too


Mt. Daisen in April 2005

© Photos and Haiku by Gabi Greve
with more photos


furusato ya dochira o mite mo yama warau

my hometown
wherever I look
mountains laugh with vendure

... shiki/kim/shikispring.html

my hometown -
wherever I look
mountains are smiling

Tr. Gabi Greve


akasugi o sukku to tatete yama warau

with its redwoods
springing to their height
the mountain laughs

Kiyoko Tokutomi



this child
always painting a sun -
mountains smiling
(Tr. Gabi Greve)

高田 風人子


whisking eggs
to a heavy-metal riff
the mountains smile

Susan Shand, April 2009


. MOUNTAIN ... related kigo for all seasons  

. Chinese origin of Japanese kigo .


Mosquitoes (ka)

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Mosquitoes, mosquitos (ka)

***** Location: Japan, worldwide
***** Season: All Summer and see below
***** Category: Animal and Humanity


mosquito, ka 蚊
"column", swarm of mosquitos, kabashira 蚊柱

"mosquitos in the underbrush, country mosquitos"
..... yabuka, "thicket mosquito", striped mosquitos 藪蚊
CLICK for more photos !
a rather unpleasant variety when working outside, Stegomyia fasciata.

to hit a mosquito, swat a mosquito, ka o utsu 蚊を打つ

. "fly squatter", mosquito squatter, hae tataki


gaganbo ががんぼ crane fly, daddy-longlegs
ka no uba 蚊の姥(かのうば) "grandmother mosquito"
katonbo, ka tonbo 蚊蜻蛉(かとんぼ)"dragonfly mosquito"
ooka 大蚊(おおか)"big mosquito"
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

A crane fly is an insect in the family Tipulidae.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

I tweet my words
a cranefly settles
on the door

- Shared by Clive Oseman -
Joys of Japan, 2012


makunagi 蠛蠓 (まくなぎ) midge
mematoi めまとい, memawari めまわり、metataki めたたき
"eye disturber"
nukaga 糠蚊(ぬかが)"rice bran fly"
namagusa 蠓(なまぐさ)
yusurika 揺蚊(ゆすりか)"swaying fly"

tobu 蚋 (ぶと) gnat
buto 蟆子(ぶと),buyu ぶゆ、buyo ぶよ

yume no yo to kame o warau ka buyu no koe

hey, the world's
a dream
-- are the gnats
laughing at the turtle?

Tr. Chris Drake

. Full comment by Chris Drake .

. . . . . . . . . . .

humanity kigo for late summer

kusa kageroo 草蜉蝣 (くさかげろう) lacewing fly


humanity kigo for all summer

CLICK for more photos

mosquitonet, mosquito net, kaya 蚊帳
..... one of the best things in an old Japanese farmhouse in summer, to sleep cool in the night breeze, all doors open

There are quite a few kigo releted to this most important item of old !

..... kaya 蚊屋(かや)
..... kachoo 蚊帳(かちょう)
..... kabukuro 蚊袋(かぶくろ)

furugaya 古蚊帳(ふるがや)old mosquito net

asagaya 麻蚊帳(あさがや)mosquito net made from hemp
momengaya 木綿蚊帳(もめんがや)mosquito net made from cotton

aogaya 青蚊帳(あおがや)green mosquito net
(usually a mixture of hemp and cotton, dyed in this color)

shirokaya 白蚊帳(しろかや)white mosquito net

kaya no te 蚊帳の手(かやのて)hanger of a mosquito net
there were four "hands" to hang the net on the four corners of the room.

hatsu kaya 初蚊帳(はつかや)first use of the mosquito net
..... kaya no tsuri hajime 、蚊帳の吊り初め(かやのつりはじめ)
..... kaya hajime 蚊帳初め(かやはじめ)

misumigaya 三隅蚊帳(みすみがや)mosquito net with three corners

Oomigaya 近江蚊帳(おうみがや)mosquito net from Omi (near lake Biwa)
Naragaya 奈良蚊帳(ならがや)mosquito net from Nara
These two regions were especially famous for the fine mosquito nets.
The nets from Omi were green with a red seam to bring a bit of color to the bedroom.

makuragaya 枕蚊帳(まくらがや)pillow mosquito net
..... horogaya 母衣蚊帳(ほろがや)
mostly usef for small children

mengaya 面蚊帳(めんがや) mosquito net for the face
Used by the army when luggage was limited. 

CLICK for more photos
kayauri, kaya uri 蚊帳売(かやうり)vendor of mosquito nets

They used to walk in the town of Edo, the master with a hat and hanten coat including the name of his shop, and a servant with just a straw hat. He carried a pole with two baskets full of nets.
The master shouted "moegi no kayaaa" もえぎのかやーー "green mosquito nets", stretching the AAA sound while walking almost 50 meters in a narrow road, so all could hear him. His strong, beautiful voice was one of his advertisements of the trade and he had to take lessons to be able to produce the call.

shichoo 紙帳 ( しちょう) mosquito net made of washi Japanese paper
shichoo uri 紙帳売(しちょううり) vendor of the above

The net could be in a triangular or square form and was usually white. Some were painted with black ink paintings. Some parts of the paper were cut and nets of fine silk inserted to let the wind come in.
These were used by poor people who could not afford all-meshed nets. They also used these nets in winter for a bit of warmth.

ko wa gochoo oya wa shichoo o tsurite neru

the daughter sleeps in Gocho
the parents sleep
under a paper net

The daughter had been sold to the Yoshiwara pleasure district (Gocho-Machi) and her poor parents had to make do with a paper net. This senryu expressed the poor living conditions of so many people in Edo.

This is also a pun with GO 5 and SHI 4.

. Doing Business in Edo - 江戸の商売 .

Mother breastfeeding a child under a mosquito net
Utagawa Toyokuni I (1769-1825)

source : loc.gov/pictures/collection
Fujin tomarikyaku no zu / Woman with a visitor.
Kitagawa Utamaro


observance kigo for mid-summer

gihoo o kaku 儀方を書く writing GI HO
..... gihoo o shosu 儀方を書す(ぎほうをしょす)
writing a spell
A custom of China, on May 5.
n ancient China it was custom to write the two characters GIHO 儀方 on a piece of paper and paste this onto the four main pillars of the home to ward off mosquitoes and flies during the summer time. In Japan, this tradition was followed for some time too.

. Calligraphy and Kigo


kigo for late spring

haru no ka 春の蚊 はるのか mosquito in spring
..... haruka, haru-ka 晩春 春蚊(はるか)

hatsu ka 初蚊(はつか)first mosquito


kigo for all autumn

aki no ka 秋の蚊 (あきのか) mosquito in autumn
wakare no ka 別れ蚊(わかれか)"good bye mosquitos"
nokoru ka 残る蚊(のこるか)mosquiots still left
..... ka no nagori 蚊の名残(かのなごり)
okurega 後れ蚊(おくれか) late mosquitos

kigo for mid-autumn

abureka 溢蚊 (あぶれか)
mosquitos beyond their prime

..... aware ga 哀れ蚊(あわれか)"pitiful mosquitos"
hachigatus ka 八月蚊(はちがつか) mosquitos of the eighth lunar month


kigo for all winter

fuyu no ka 冬の蚊 (ふゆのか ) mosquito in winter
..... fuyuka 冬蚊(ふゆか)

Worldwide use


. Mosquito and mosquito net  



mosquito net
kigo for all summer

bright smile
over and under the mosquito net -
new born

Heike Gewi


Things found on the way

kabashira hyakku 蚊柱百句
100 verses about swarming mosquitoes

. Nishiyama Soin 西山宗因 .
(1605 - 1682)

He was the first to introduce mosquitoes, fleas and other low insects into haikai poetry, since "every living creature has a heart".


at Temple Toshodai-Ji (Tooshoodaiji 唐招提寺)

Legend relates to saint Kakujoo shoonin 覚盛上人 (1194 - 1249).
When he was sitting in Zazen, many mosquitoes came to disturb him and suck his blood.
His disciples hurried on to hit the mosquitoes and kill them.
But Kakujo held them back:
"Right now I am practising making offerings (fuse gyoo 布施行)
and offer my blood to the mosquitoes."
Only after his death did the disciples and the nuns offer fans at his grave.

Even now they are made by hand and sold at the temple.

. Temple Toshodaiji .


Oomi-gaya ase ya sazanami yoru no toko / Oomigaya

mosquito net from Omi -
my sweat - gentle waves
my bed at night

Written in 1677 延宝5年 Basho age 34.

When using this famous mosquito net in Edo, the poet can remember the gentle waves of Lake Biwa.
sazanami is a makurakotoba "pillow word" of Lake Biwa 琵琶湖.

. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 Issa in Edo .
Tr. Gabi Greve

kaze fuku ya ana darake demo waga kachoo

wind blows -
even with lots of holes this is
my mosquito net

hototogisu kiki dokoro tote yabu ka kana

a good place
to hear the hototogisu
but all these mosquitoes . . .

The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.


a mosquito
aiming noisily -
the sound of one hand


the sound
of one hand clapping >
a dead mosquito

While I was having my bout with the enemy, little Haiku-kun (my kitten) had his encounter with one of Karls children (Karl is the general name of our large mini-tiny Frog-Family, you can see one of his brothers in the picture in the following link).

the sound
of one paw tapping >
a dead frog


Gabi Greve


my old ears
hear less and less -



By Soji


tailors' bazaar --
tea and mosquito coils
on the evening air

Norman Darlington, (Timbuktu, Mali)


昼寝時 一匹だけの 蚊の音色
hirunedoki ippiki dake no ka no ne-iro

Mittagsschlaf -
das Geräusch von nur EINER

naptime -
the sound of just ONE

Gabi Greve, June 2006          


ka no koe no naka ni shisaku no ito o eshi

Takeshita Shizunojo (1887 - 1951)

amid the buzz of mosquitoes
a thread of ideas is enfolding

(tr. Gabi Greve)

Through the mosquito's voice
I started a thread of poetic thought.

Read an interesting interpretation of this haiku by
Hugh Bygott, July 2006


from deep inside
the pretty flower...
thicket mosquito

utsukushiki hana no naka yori yabu ka kana

by Issa, 1808
Tr. David Lanoue

Related words

boofura, boofuri 孑孑 ぼうふら - ぼうふり mosquito larva

. WKD : Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

boofuri ga tenjoo suru zo kado no tsuki

a larva flies, now
a mosquito, up to heaven --
moon above the gate

Tr. Chris Drake

This hokku is a later (1822) variation of a hokku written in 1819, the year evoked in Year of My Life:

boufuri ga tenjou suru zo mika no tsuki

a larva flies, now
a mosquito, up to heaven --
thin crescent moon

In the original version a third-night crescent moon shares heaven with the newly matured mosquito. When Issa put this hokku into Year of My Life he changed three syllables to make it a little softer, but the difference isn't major. See my April 10, 2013 post.

Of course Issa knows larvae can't fly, and he is not suggesting that the larva here is flying up toward heaven. His concise verse implies that the larva has at last turned into a mature mosquito that is able to fly. The term "flying/rising up to heaven" seems to have three meanings here. First, the mature mosquito takes off for the first time into the evening sky. Second, the mosquito must be so glad to have left behind its larva and pupa stages that it's as happy as if it were in heaven. And third, Issa celebrates the mosquito's growth from a mere larva and then pupa and its discovery that it can fly. Momentarily he seems to feel none of the ordinary aversion humans have toward mosquitoes. Instead, he seems to be imagining what it must feel like to be a newly mature mosquito that believes it can fly anywhere, even to heaven. However, the moon rising above the gate suggests that heaven is a actually a bit higher than the mosquito thinks it is.

Chris Drake


***** Bat 蚊喰鳥 kakuidori, bat [literally "mosquito-eating bird"] Fledermaus

***** Mosquitoes in Kenya

***** WKD : Fly-swatter, Mosquitoe Swatter
katori senkoo 蚊取り線香 mosquito coil

*****  aki no kaya 秋の蚊帳 (あきのかや)
mosquito net in autumn


plant kigo for late summer

kayatsurigusa 蚊帳吊草 (かやつりぐさ)
"plant to hang in the mosquito net"

Cyperus microiria. Zypergras
Grows wild on abandoned fields. It has a strong fragrance against mosquitoes.

no ni fuseba kayatsurigusa mo tanomu beshi

when lying down in the wilderness
we should also get some
mosquito net grass

Kobayashi Issa 一茶

Illustration by : www.kyoko-kirie.jp






[ . BACK to Worldkigo TOP . ]


***** Location: India, South Asia
***** Season: See below

***** Category: Seasons


In the India Saijiki
we have MONSOON (july-august) as an extra season within a set of six seasons.

Bill Higginson in HAIKU WORLD suggests to use the word
MONSOON or WET SEASON as a kigo for
“All Summer” in South Asia.

Different tropical climates have monsoons at different times. The southwestern coast of Sri Lanka, experiences the southwest monsoon from late May through October, as does the southwest coast of India. The monsoon season features heavy rains and southwest winds that sometimes cause severe flooding, mudslides and the like, especially in coastal areas. Necessary for agriculture, and a welcome relief from the HOT DRY SEASON of February through early May, when temperatures rise into the mid-90s F (mid-30s C) with high humidity, the storms can still create a grim, gray time.
in some tropical areas, for example Central America, the WET SEASON is called 'winter' (Spanish invierno) but it is also a very fertile time. Other tropical areas will differ as to the timing of wet and dry seasons.
I recommend that any renku written in the tropics, or involving natives of the tropics, include seasonal topics appropriate to the 'monsoon' or wet season, and the hot or DRY SEASON once each in place of summer or winter in the mid-section of the renku-- and in the hokku, if the poem is written there.
Future attempts at international saijiki may contain a substantial number of wet- and dry-season phenomena, warranting the creation of these as new seasons in the saijiki.
Bill Higginson in HAIKU WORLD


The Japanese rainy season, tsuyu 梅雨 with all its related words are part of the summer kigo.

Monsoon Sunset and other Photos by Kim Richards


Here are some meteorological explanations:

The word 'monsoon' appears to have originated from the Arabic word 'mausim', which means season. It is used to describe seasonal reversals of wind direction, caused by temperature differences between the land and sea, which occur in a number of countries around the world.

The cause
In some respects it is a large version of the 'land-sea breeze', where on a sunny day at the beach, the land warms more quickly than the ocean. As the hot air rises over the land, it is replaced by the cooler air over the water.
At night, however, the land cools at a quicker rate than the water, so the wind shifts, blowing from the land to the warmer water.
So our two key ingredients for the Asian Monsoon are a large land mass and a large ocean - namely southern Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) and the surrounding Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.

When does it start?
From April, the pre-monsoon heat builds over the land and with time will result in continuous rising of less dense air (as the land warms faster) and form areas of low pressure, most commonly over North India and the Himalayas.
Meanwhile, over the oceans the air is cooler and denser so it is linked to areas of high pressure. The temperature difference between the land and sea can be as much as 20°C - land temperatures in India can even exceed 45°C, while the surrounding water in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea remain in the low 20s.

To maintain the energy balance the air starts flowing from the oceans (high pressure) to the land (low pressure) bringing in the moisture rich southwest winds across southern Asia - the 'wet' phase.
When the 'wet' phase starts, around 25 May, it has two arms. One coming into Sri Lanka and the other one moving up from the Bay of Bengal into parts of NE India and Bangladesh.

The retreat
As the land and ocean begin to cool in late summer and into autumn, the land loses heat quicker than the ocean. The wind reverses during this 'dry' phase, becoming a northeasterly.
From the diagram we can see the movement of this monsoon across southern Asia and then its withdrawal, usually completed by late December.

Here is a map that shows the southwest monsoon, showing onset- and withdrawl dates.

Monsoon Rainbust by Kim Richards


Gujarat, India

"Oh, it's the naked rain,"
so say the Gujarati people on the first rainfall.
Typically the first rainfall around the state of Gujarat is accompanied by sunshine peeping on and off through the monsoon clouds sweeping through the western region of India in late June or early July.

The naked rain, as it is referred to in Gujarat, is a harbinger of the monsoon and is received like the much-awaited guest that is mildly taunted by the hosts with "What took you so long?"

While children sing folksongs of rains in kindergarten, college students study monsoon romance in classics such as Meghdoot (the messenger of monsoon), written by Kalidas, one of the most acclaimed Indian poets from fourth century A.D.
Every living being, relieved from the heat, now craves love.

Read more here:


Monsoon On Line

Following the Great Indian Drought of 1877, H.F. Blanford, who had established the India Meteorological Department in 1875, issued the first seasonal forecast of Indian monsoon rainfall in 1884. Later, in the early part of the 20th century, Sir Gilbert Walker initiated extensive studies of global teleconnections which led him to the discovery of Southern Oscillation. Walker introduced, for the first time, the concept of correlation for long-range forecasting of the Asian summer monsoon and his findings are relevant even today.

More than 100 years later, forecasts and hindcasts (backcasts) of the Asian summer monsoon are still being made using statistical regression, often with remarkable success.

© Monsoon On Line
by D.B. Stephenson & K. Rupa Kumar

Worldwide use


we have MONSOON (july-august) as an extra season within a set of six seasons.

It includes words like like floods, flooded streets, heavy showers, lightning, raincoat, thunder, umbrella, many of which are kigo in the Japanese saijiki too.


Northern America

Pineapple Express (also known as Pineapple Connection)
is a non-technical, shorthand term popular in the news media for a meteorological phenomenon which is characterized by a strong and persistent flow of atmospheric moisture and associated heavy rainfall from the waters adjacent to the Hawaiian Islands and extending to any location along the Pacific coast of North America.
A Pineapple Express is driven by a strong, southern branch of the Polar jetstream and is usually marked by the presence of a surface frontal boundary which is typically either slow or stationary, with waves of low pressure traveling along its axis. Each of these low pressure systems brings enhanced rainfall.

The Puget Sound region from Olympia, Washington to Vancouver, BC received several inches of rain per day in November 2006 from a series of successive Pineapple Express storms that caused massive flooding in all major regional rivers and mudslides which closed the mountain passes.

The unusually intense rain storms that hit south-central Alaska in August 2006 were termed "Pineapple Express" rains locally.

In British Columbia especially, Pineapple Express systems typically generate heavy snowfall in the mountains and Interior Plateau, which often melts rapidly because of the warming effect of the system.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



Amihan and Habagat monsoon



NE-Monsoon, SW-Monsoon  

Things found on the way

It is possible to identify seasons, although these do not occur uniformly throughout South Asia. The Indian Meteorological Service divides the year into four seasons:

the relatively dry, cool winter from December through February;
the dry, hot summer from March through May;
the southwest monsoon from June through September when the predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of the country;
the northeast monsoon, or retreating, monsoon of October and November.



I fall asleep when l meet you,
The hapless sleep of infants
Or animals or violent sleep
Of winter when life goes under
Redically: so quiet,hearing

Abstract poems of Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Monsoon History

- Shared by Mokhtar Sah Malik -
Haiku Culture Magazine, 2013


Monsoon clouds
Framed by rectangle
Gray above green



wrath of the monsoon
lightning displays with heavy wind
here fast, gone faster

Bernard Howe


monsoon rain-
the finger-painted poster

monsoon rain –
worn tights
caught on the old clothes-pole

monsoon rain –
the pigeons peck
on a discarded guava

Harsangeet Kaur Bhullar


Remembering Bombay 30 years ago,
three weeks in Monsoon showers, whoff, wondering how we survived that one !

monsoon shower –
the smell of Bombay
in our hair

The moist air, the endless smell of incense to kill the penetrant smell of mold.
The smell of curry bubbeling in the street stalls.

monsoon shower –
holding on to
black umbrellas

The babus in their white doti, pulling up the legs, balancing with one hand the huge black umbrellas - all in vain, the rain pours from all directions !

Bombay in the Rain !
a place to dance ?
such was youth !

Gabi Greve


paddy flooded---
herons pace proudly
on monsoon clouds

Izabel Sonia Ganz


after the monsoon
their nest on the cobbles
the death birdies

by the monsoon
her umbrella

Geert Verbeke


monsoon --
the sound of
my own sobs

© Ella Wagemakers

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 2005

silver clouds
with dark lining -
parched ground looks up

onset of monsoon in time (june 1st week) is critical for the farmers and the nation too

M.R. Vinodh, 2005

It is almost normal in India to have floods in one part of the country and drought conditions in another! Isn't it ironical that while normally when speaking of 'hope' we talk about 'dark clouds with silver lining' while pre-monsoon its the other way round? wishing that the rains here do stay a little longer...



In Kenya, the rains were late this year, and we are praying that they might last a bit longer than usual... every day, we have been looking upwards...

rain clouds --
where will they shed
their load?

rain clouds --
are they heading for
my mum's home?

So often, one part of Nairobi might be washed away with torrential rain, while other parts have none. Travelling in the front seat of a bus, one might see a clear dividing line -- thus far, the rain came, and no farther...

Isabelle Prondzynski


monsoon dawn
flowers and greens
just turn visible

June 2005, Narayanan Raghunathan
Read more of his monsoon haiku here:

Monsoon by Narayanan


Two Monsoon Haiku from the Mainichi Haiku Files
Oct. 1, 2005 (No.676)

monsoon fury
a child’s doll floats past
the second floor window

Angelee Deodhar; Chandigarh, India

.. .. ..

bombay rains…
wade through the water

Kala Ramesh; Pune, India



monsoon rain...
street dogs following
a female's heat

Kameshwara Rao, India


> the road under water
> I still don't know
> all the potholes

> cloudburst -
> the flies are already
> in the house

> cloudburst -
> two men in the doorway
> chat about war

Johannes Manjrekar, India, September 2006


monsoon rain ...
between two thunderclouds
our catamaran

Ella Wagemakers
July 2009


first rains...
the child loads innocence
in the paper boat

Kumarendra Mallick
Hyderabad, India, July 2009


Monsoon water rising
Cipher machines up on bricks
A canoe ride home

Memories of Malaysia, long ago

A cipher machine is similar to an electric typewriter but is designed to encode or rather encrypt secret messages. At this time I was in the Army, we were protecting Malaysian Borneo from the Confrontation declared by the President of Indonesia. Therefore there was a great need for secrecy in our communications.
As the flood waters rose all electric equipment had to be propped up on bricks to keep them out of the water. After going off duty that morning I borrowed a canoe and went to help local neighbours to carry their refrigerators upstairs too.

- Shared by Res John Burman -
Joys of Japan, 2012

Related words

***** . Rain in India .


Long Rains, a season (Kenya)

***** World Kigo Database : Rain in various kigo

Cloud, clouds(kumo) Various Kigo.

WIND in various kigo

Typhoon  台風  Japan




MOON and related LINKS

[ . BACK to Worldkigo TOP . ]

The Moon, O-Tsukisama, Der Mond, La Lune

On this page you find links to the various worldwide kigo and information connected with the moon, in alphabetical order.

Here we also collect haiku about the moon, "Mr. Moon",
o-tsuki sama お月様.

The Moon belongs to the category of "Heaven", naturally.
But some activities around the time of the full moon in Autumn in Japan belong to the categories of Humanity or Observance.

The word MOON without further connotation,
refers to the AUTUMN MOON in Japanese haiku.

a wobbely moon
a wobbely viewer
tonight we get drunk

When I moved out to the countryside, I realized the importance of the moon . . .
Here are no streetlights, no neighbours, no nothing - so at night it is pitch dark.
This is the situation in the world and in Japan before the arrival of Electricity.
Therefore a moonlit night is most welcome, to be up a bit longer, not fear the demons and devils of the dark, sit with friends and compose poetry !

Gabi Greve, 2004


- Matsuo Basho told his disciples:

. . . behold the clouds over the east bank of the Yangzi River
when you are looking at the moon above the Kasai shore.

The "East Bank of the Yangzi River" refers to Huiji, where Li Bo spent time composing poetry.

source : Peipei Qiu: Basho and the Dao

. Chinese background of Japanese kigo .


Snow, Moon and Blossoms, Setsugekka - 雪月花 setsugetsuka
Japanese Art and the Japanese View of Nature
To the Japanese mind, nature is more than just physical scenery.
The Japanese love of the imperfect stems from an acknowledgment of the inherent limitations of human creative powers.

© SETSUGEKKA, by Isamu Kurita, MOA
..... Do not miss to read the full essay .


We have only to say "the moon" when we refer to the autumn moon. We must therefore put such epithets as "spring/vernal", "summer", or "winter" before the moon when we mention the other season's moon.
Takashi Nonin
Read more.


Apogee and Perigee of the Moon

Apogee and perigee refer to the distance from the Earth to the moon. Apogee is the furthest point from the earth. Perigee is the closest point to the earth and it is in this stage that the moon appears larger. Looking at the moon in the sky without anything to compare it to, you wouldn't notice any size difference. But the difference in size can in fact be quite significant.

Effects of Apogee and Perigee
The apogee and perigee of the moon have an effect on the tides here on Earth. When the moon is at apogee, the furthest distance from the Earth, it has less gravitational pull which, along with other factors that influence the tides, can contribute to lower tides or lower variation in the high/low tide level. When the moon is at perigee, closer to the Earth, there is much more gravitational pull which contributes to the opposite effect: higher tides or greater variation in the high and low tide.

source : www.moonconnection.com

snow moon
behind the old tree ...
what a sight !

Gabi Greve, January 10, 2009


. Tsuki Jinja 調神社 "Moon Shrine" .
waiting for the moon on the 12th day of the 12th month
juuninichi machi 十二日まち


Japanese Names for the Lunar Months
Since lunar months and solar years do not coincide, the actual beginning of the each lunar month varied from year to year. Most lunar months have two or three names.
Each lunar month has its full moon on the 15th day.

Find the list here:
WKD . Asian Lunar Calendar System

ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo

meigetsu no hoo e korobasu makura kana

I shift my pillow
closer to the
full moon.

Saiba 1858 (Tr. Hoffmann)

By the old Japanese lunar calendar, the full moon was always on the fifteenth of the month; and the eighth month would be our September. Just as a brief aside here, although the Japanese, from a Buddhist standpoint, like the full moon, from an aesthetic standpoint they also like the moons of the thirteenth and the seventeenth as well, because these moons were slightly misshapen from total fullness.

Autumn in Japan by the old lunar calendar consisted of the seventh, eighth, and ninth months (our August, September, and October). The most significant full moon of the lunar year was the full moon of the eight month (September), the Harvest Moon.

Larry Bole
Translating Haiku Forum

As the full moon rises
The swan sings in sleep
On the lake of the mind.

source : Epitaph of Kenneth Rexroth


by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi 月岡芳年

meigetsu ya kite miyogashi no hitaigiwa

The full moon
coming with a challenge
to flaunt its beautiful brow

Tr. John Stevenson

Fukami Jikyu
source : www.myjapanesehanga.com

Autumnal Moonlight Viewing
tsukimi 月見

There is an old custom of celebrating the full moon on the fifteenth day of the eighth month on the traditional Japanese calendar. It's a very poetic and elegant practice, with people placing ornaments and offerings next to windows, on verandas, and in other places where one can see the moon. Vases are filled with pampas grass and autumnal herbs, and seasonal foods like dumplings, pears, persimmons, and grapes are placed on dishes.

Autumn consisted of the seventh, eighth, and ninth months of the year on the old Japanese calendar. The full moon in the middle autumnal month, called chushu no meigetsu, was considered particularly beautiful, as the air became crisper and the heat of summer subsided.

The traditional Japanese calendar and the modern one used by countries around the world today are off by about a month. It's not unusual for chushu no meigetsu to be a day or two off from the day of the full moon.

The practice of celebrating the full moon came from China during the Heian period (794-1185). Records show that chushu no meigetsu was marked with poetry and music by court aristocrats as early as 909.

In the Edo period (1603-1868) the practice of enjoying the beautiful rays of the moon spread to warriors and townspeople. Farmers also incorporated viewing the full autumn moon into agricultural rites. For instance, taro roots (sato imo) were prepared as offerings, and moon-viewing doubled as a harvest festival. This became so widespread that the full moon in mid-fall also came to be known as imo meigetsu.

Eating dumplings - made from rice pounded into paste and shaped into spheres like the moon - made people feel like they were sharing a meal with the lunar god.

There used to be a custom forgiving anyone who stole the dumplings and fruits offered during moon-viewing. When the offerings were taken by children, they weren't scolded. Instead, adults said they were glad the gods liked the food so much to partake of them. This tradition is disappearing today, but the offered foods are still a treat for kids when the moon-viewing is over.
© Kidsweb


The Chinese Moon Festival

The Chinese Moon Festival is on the 15th of the 8th lunar month. Now it is celebrated sometime between the second week of September and the first week of October. It's also known as the Mid-autumn Festival. Chinese culture is deeply imbedded in traditional festivals. Just like Christmas and Thanksgiving in the West, the Moon Festival is one of the most important traditional events for the Chinese.

The Moon Festival is full of legendary stories. Legend says that Chang Er flew to the moon, where she has lived ever since. You might see her dancing on the moon during the Moon Festival. The Moon Festival is also an occasion for family reunions. When the full moon rises, families get together to watch the full moon, eat moon cakes, and sing moon poems. With the full moon, the legend, the family and the poems, you can't help thinking that this is really a perfect world. That is why the Chinese are so fond of the Moon Festival.

The moon cake is the food for the Moon Festival.
The Chinese eat the moon cake at night with the full moon in the sky. Here are a few pictures of the typical moon cake.

Read more here:
source : chineseculture.about.com

On the night, the moon is believed to appear to be at its biggest, roundest, and brightest. There is a popular Chinese saying that goes like this:
“The moon is especially round and bright in mid autumn.”

The festival is the second most important festival after the Chinese New Year. It is a night of celebration, beginning with a delicious family reunion dinner. When the moon rises high in the sky, people set up tables in their backyards or nearby parks, chatting, sharing life stories, and viewing the moon.

The festival is a millennium-old festival, dating back to 2000 years ago. Different regions or groups of people have different ways to celebrate the festival. Generally speaking, it is mainly a night for family sharing time. During moon viewing, people are constantly moved to share their knowledge about the moon, especially about the moon in Chinese poetry. School-age children or young adults are encouraged to recite moon poems, of which the most famous is Li Po’s “Thoughts in Night Quiet.”
It is believed that this poem is the best known of all Chinese poems, especially among Chinese living overseas.

Seeing moonlight here at my bed,
and thinking it's frost on the ground,

I look up, gaze at the mountain moon,
then back, dreaming of my old home.

- - translated by David Hinton

Li’s poem successfully conveys the nostalgic longing for family through the moon imagery – a symbol of distance and family reunion in the Chinese poetic tradition – portrayed in simple and evocative language. Every time when the Chinese think of their families or hometowns, they recite “Thoughts in Night Quiet.”

Moon Festival
over Taiwan and Toronto
the same moon?

alone in moonlight
no wine, my eyes drink
her in 

in the attic
autumn moonlight pools...
mother's mooncake

Chen-ou Liu
Canada, September 2010

Chinese Moon Cakes 月餅


MOON names in different American traditions
From the Farmer’s Almanach


There are many haiku about the MOON on this Link.


.. .. .. Alphabetical List

. Autumn Moon (aki no tsuki 秋の月)  Japan
The most important autumn kigo in all details.

The word MOON without further connotation,
refers to the AUTUMN MOON in Japanese haiku.

yamasato no kane no ne tooki aki no tsuki

Autumn moon
above a mountain village,
The boom of a temple bell in the distance.

tsuki no yoru sozoro aruki no kawa akari

A stroll on a moon night,
The surface of a river

kyoo no tsuki fu -to tachidomaru tsuukin ro

The harvest moon,
I stop unconsciously
on my way home from office

Great link about autumn haiku and the Sea. With many pictures.
Thanks go to Wada Yoshio.

. . . . .

Two Death Poems (farewell poems) (jisei 辞世(じせい)
about the moon

fude nagete tsuki ni mono iu bakari nari

I throw my brush away -
from now on I speak only
to the moon

Tr. Gabi Greve


I cast the brush aside -
from here on I'll speak to the moon
face to face.
Tr. Yoel Hoffman

. Reference
Koha (Kooha) 香波, 1897、August 14
. . .Haiga by greenleaf
(the last line, face to face, has no equivalent in the Japanese).

tsuki mo mite ware wa kono yo o kashiku kana

I have even seen the moon -
now I can say good bye
to this world

Kaga no Chiyoni, September 8, 1775


"Beans Full Moon", lesser harvest moon, mame meigetsu 豆名月
"Chestnut Full Moon", kuri meigetsu 栗名月
..... a treat served whilst watching the full moon
kigo for late autumn


kigo for mid-autumn

tsukimi 月見 つきみ moon viewing
..... kangetsu 観月(かんげつ)
tsuki matsuru 月祭る(つきまつる)celebrating the moon
tsuki o matsu 月を待つ(つきをまつ)waiting for the moon
see also "entertaining visitors for moon viewing" above.

tsukimizuki 月見月(つきみづき)
month when we can see the moon

. tsukimi mame 月見豆(つきみまめ)
Edamamebeans when viewing the moon
tsukimizake, 月見酒(つきみざけ)rice wine for moon viewing

. "Sweet Potato Full Moon" imo meigetsu 芋名月
Offering sweet potatoes to the deities


blackberry moon
an american indian (choctaw) name for the october moon

blackberry moon . . .
midnight rain lingers
in a snail's shell

- Shared by Sandi Pray, USA -
Joys of Japan, October 2012


"Blood Moon" and eclipses geshoku 月食

. Blue Moon .
"once in a blue moon"


Bow-string moon, gengetsu 弦月
small quater-moon, crescent moon
kigo for autumn

"Bow-stretched moon", yumiharizuki 弓張月


Christmas Moon Weihnachtsmond

"cold moon", moon in a cold nicht
(kan no tsuki 寒の月)

kigo for winter

cold moon -
shards of light
on frost

Ella Wagenmakers


Dawn moon in autumn (ariakezuki) Japan. 有明月(ありあけづき)
moon in the morning, asazuki/moon left over, nokoru tsuki/mist in the morning, ariake gasumi


dumplings for moon viewing, tsukimi dango, tsukimidango 月見団子 

They are placed on a beautiful tray and put outside as an offering to the deities on the autumn full moon night. Later on, they are eaten by the family.

susuki すすき grasses (another kigo for the full autumn moon season) are put in a vase beside them.
Click HERE to see some photos.

entertaining visitors for moon viewing,
tsuki no za, 月の座

..... tsuki no en 月の宴
host who invited for moon viewing, tsuki no aruji, 月の主
guests viewing the moon togheter, tsuki no kyaku, 月の客
friends viewing the moon together, tsuki no tomo 月の友
moon viewing restaurant, tsukimijaya 月見茶屋 (つきみじゃや)
boat for moon viewing, tsukimibune 月見船
drinking sake while moon viewing, tsukimizake 月見酒
kigo for mid-autumn


Evening moon, yuuzuki 夕月
Night moon, yoizuki 宵月
Moon of tonight, kyoo no tsuki 今日の月
the moon tonight, koyoi no tsuki 月今宵
kigo for mid-autumn


Full Moon (mangetsu 満月)
auspicious moon, mochizuki 望月, meigetsu 名月
kigo for mid-autumn

full moon
keeping an eye
on the stars

full moon
wolf howling
your side of the fence

Ella Wagemakers

o o o o o

There is an Ezine called "Full Moon"

. tsuki 月 (つき) moon, der Mond
The Full Moon of Autumn ... more KIGO


France, names of the moon

new moon, nouvelle lune (French)
shingetsu / saku (" new moon")

new crescent, croissant (French)
mikazuki ("the third day's moon")

half-moon, premier quartier (French)
hangetsu ("half-moon"),
jougen no tsuki("an upward bow" )

full moon, pleine lune (French)
mangetsu, mochizuki("full moon"),
juugoya ("the fifteenth night")

half-moon, dernier quartier (French)
hangetsu ("half-moon"),
kagen no tsuki ("a downward bow")



Germany, names of the moon
Namen des Mondes

Januar: Hartmond, Eismond, Schneemond, Wolfsmond
Februar: Narrenmond, Schmelzmond, Taumond
März: Frühlingsmond
April: Ostermond
Mai: Weidemond, Wonnemond, Marienmond
Juni: Brachmond, Rosenmond
Juli: Heumond
August: Erntemond, Sichelmond
September: Herbstmond
Oktober: Weinmond, Dachsmond
November: Nebelmond, Wintermond, Windmond
Dezember: Julmond, Christmond, Heiligmond, Wolfsmond, Schlachtmond


Harvest Moon, North America

Hunger Moon

Hunter's Moon


. WKD : Ice Moon - February
'Moon of the Dark Red Calf'  

Moon, waxing (moondraam pirai)


Moon Names

Colonial American
American Indian (Choctaw)
American Indian (Dakotah Sioux)
English Medieval
Neo Pagan
New Guinea
source : krcool


. Meigetsu 名月 (Japan)
The full moon of Mid-Autumn (September)
"famous moon". The full moon of the eighth lunar month, usually in September.
also translated as : harvest moon.
kigo for mid-autumn


.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. MOON

handblown glass -
cirrus clouds curve
around the moon

Hortensia Anderson

oo oo oo oo oo

moonlit bridge –......................... яркая луна --
my shadow checks the path .......тень нащупывает путь
before my steps .........................по мостику

Origa (Olga Hooper)

Read more of Origa's Moon Haiku here:


MOON kigo for mid-autumn

New Moon, shingetsu 新月, 初月
the moon appears small for the first time in the eigth month of the lunar calendar, now September. Crescent moon.

New Moon on the second day, futsukazuki 二日月
..... sengetsu 繊月(せんげつ)
..... futsuka no tsuki 二日の月(ふつかのつき)

New Moon on the third day, mikkazuki 三日月
..... mikka no tsuki 三日の月(みっかのつき, tsuki no mayu 月の眉(つきのまゆ), mayugakizuki 眉書月(まゆがきづき), mayuzuki 眉月(まゆづき), mikkazuki mayu 三日月眉(みかづきまゆ)
..... new moon, shingetsu 新月(しんげつ), young moon, jakugetsu 若月(じゃくげつ)
..... sword of the moon, tsuki no tsurugi 月の剣(つきのつるぎ)
..... gabi 蛾眉(がび), shohaku 初魄(しょはく)

No Moon (mugetsu, 無月 Japan)
The "invisible moon" , refers to the night of the full moon in September, when he is hidden by the clouds.
When it rains on that day, we have the "rain moon", ugetsu 雨月.


October Full Moon (nochi no tsuki 後の月)
kigo for late autumn
"the next full moon"
Spetember in the Asian lunar calendar. In America: Hunter's Moon.
The moon a month after the really bright moon of august.

nochitsuki no kanashiki hodo no shirosa kana

October full moon
moonshine is too white
for sadness

Etsuko Yanagibori


paper moon
topic for haiku

Paper Moon is a 1973 American comedy film directed by Peter Bogdanovich and released by Paramount Pictures. The screenplay was adapted from the novel Addie Pray by Joe David Brown, and the film was shot in black-and-white. The film is set in Kansas and Missouri during the Great Depression. It stars the real-life father and daughter pairing of Ryan and Tatum O'Neal, as on-screen father and daughter Moze and Addie.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Poacher's Moon

Snow Moon
kigo for winter


Spring Moon kigo for all spring

Vollmond im Frühling
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

haru no tsuki 春の月 moon in spring
... shungetsu 春月(しゅんげつ)
haruzukiyo 春月夜(はるづきよ)night with a spring moon
haru mangetsu 春満月(はるまんげつ)full moon in spring

haru mikazuki 春三日月 (はるみかづき) crescent moon in spring
... 春の三日月(はるのみかづき)

oborozuki 朧月 (おぼろづき) hazy moon in spring
CLICK for more photos
tsuki oboro 月朧(つきおぼろ)moon is hazy
oborozukiyo 朧月夜(おぼろづきよ)night with a hazy moon
tangetsu 淡月(たんげつ) lightly hazy moon
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Spring Moon Haiga
Beautiful Haiga by Victor P. Gendrano


Sugar Moon / Sap Moon Full Worm - March Moon. Maple Moon.
North America and Canada. Making Maple Syrup.


Young woman viewing the summer moon
Suzuki Harunobu (1725-1770)

Summer moon

natsu no tsuki 夏の月 (なつのつき) moon in summer
summer moon
It refers to a cool evening (tsuki suzushi 月涼し)
It has been the subject of many poems since old times, when people enjoyed the full moon on a cool summer night.
When it shines on the earth, it colors the ground white "like frost" (yoru no shimo 夜の霜), to bring a cool feeling to the viewer.

. cool moon, tsuki suzushi 月涼い  

takotsubo ya hakanaki yume o natsu no tsuki
Basho and the Octopus pot

natsu no tsuki mukizu no yoru mo nakari keri

summer moon--
there's no such thing
as a flawless night

(Tr. David Lanoue)

late summer moon . . .
the remnants of a gull’s wake
floats on the river

Bruce Ross , Bangor, ME, USA


kigo for mid-summer

tsuyu no tsuki 梅雨の月 (つゆのつき)
moon in the rainy season

. tsukimizu tsuki 月見ず月(つきみずつき)
month when we can not see the moon


Snow and Moon

. . yukizukiyo 雪月夜(ゆきづきよ)
night with snow and a full moon

I read your Haiku
before sleep

Etsuko Yanagibori



fuyu no tsuki 冬の月 (ふゆのつき) winter moon, moon in winter
tsuki sayuru 月冴ゆる(つきさゆる)brigh clear winter moon
tsuki kooru 月氷る(つきこおる)"freezing moon"
kangetsu 寒月(かんげつ)"moon in the cold", moon on a cold night
("cold moonlight" is something else.)

fuyu mikazuki 冬三日月(ふゆみかづき)cresecent moon in winter
kan mikazuki 寒三日月(かんみかづき) crescent moon in the cold

- - - - - Yosa Buson - - - - -

kangetsu ya kaisandoo no ki no ma yori

this cold moon -
among the trees
of the founder's hall

- - - - -

kangetsu ya kareki no naka no take sankan

this cold moon -
among the bare trees
three stalks of bamobo

- - - - -

kangetsu ya koishi no sawaru kutsu no soko

this cold moon -
the soles of my shoes
touch small pebbles

- - - - -

kangetsu ya matsu no ochiba no ishi o iru

this cold moon -
fallen needles of pines
shoot into stones

- - - - -

kangetsu ya mon o tatakeba kutsu no oto

this cold moon -
after knocking at the (temple) door
the sound of wooden clogs

- - - - -

kangetsu ya nokogiri-iwa no akara sama

this cold moon -
the red glow
on Nokogiri-Iwa rocks

. Nokogiriyama 鋸山 Mount Nokogiri . Chiba prefecture
nokogiri - saw

- - - - -

kangetsu ya shuuto no gungi no sugite nochi

this cold moon -
after the monk-soldiers left
the war meeting

monk-soldiers (soohei 僧兵) armed monks of the Heian period and later, mostly adherent to the large temples in Kyoto and other regions of Japan.

- - - - -

kangetsu ya zoo ni yuki-au hashi no ue

this cold moon -
I meet a monk
on the bridge

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 and the moon .

- - - including

kangetsu ni ki o waru tera no otoko kana

kangetsu ya mon naki tera no ten takashi

kangetsu ya tani ni cha o kumu mine no tera


kangetsu ya ware hitori yuku hashi no oto

moon in the cold -
only my own footsteps
on the bridge

Tan Taigi 炭太祗
Tr. Gabi Greve

cold moonlight
through the window
still no dreams

source : Haiku Bandit Society, March 2009


Haibun about the Moon
by Takashi Nonin


We have only to say "the moon" when we refer to the autumnmoon. We must therefore put such epithets as "spring/vernal", "summer", or "winter" before the moon when we mention the other season's moon.The autumn moon makes the difference. My old SAIJIKI has 126 words or phrases with regard to the autumn moon. Which shows how profoundly the Japanese have affiliated with the moon since ancient times.

Today, October 5th (September 15th according to the lunar calendar) is the Full Moon. Tonight TV stations across the Archipelago telecast the full moon with a few seasonal comments. "A poet can not but be jocund." We look up and admire the moon tonight.When it happens to be cloudy and we cannot see the moon, we don't complain but try to see the "invisible" moon way beyond the clouds.

This is Mugetsu or No Moon. When it's raining, we call the Rainy Moon Ugetsu 雨月. We miss the moon, to which our thoughts go out through the rain.We praise the moon and enjoy everything about the way the moon looks tonight. Eared pampas grass and several other flowering plants fresh from the autumn fields arranged in a vase, together with"moon-viewing dumplings"(Tsukimi-dango) are placed near the open window as the gifts for the moon.
Our hearts are filled with anticipation on the Eve of the Full Moon (Oct.4th this year). This is Matsuyoi or The Moon-awaiting Evening.


Sitting all alone
facing a still white paper:
behind me the moon

Vasile Moldovan
Read more about the Moon in Europa


三日月の 頃より待ちし 今宵かな
mikazuki no koro yori machi shi koyoi kana

since the sickle moon
we waited so impatiently
for the moon tonight

Matsuo Basho,
the last woodblock print in the following series

One Hundred Aspects of the Moon
Tsuki Hyakushi 月百姿
by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892)

One Hundred Aspects of the Moon is the last major work of Yoshitoshi. 100 Aspects of the Moon consists of a hundred single sheets with very diverse subjects and only one common theme - the moon, more or less visible on each design.

Read the full article with more prints here:
© Artelino.com Art

Here is my dear Daruma in this MOON series


Yoshitoshi's moon prints on display in Leiden, Holland
By MARJAN BEX, November 2006

Harvest Moon and Geese Haiku / WHR 3


harvest moon above
lights the evening sky
silver fields below

Paul Oxberry, October 2007


Super Moon May 2012

photo : Maya Lyubenova, 05 May 2012; Plovdiv, Bulgaria

between us
there also lives
super moon

- Shared by Louis Osofsky -

super moon-
pull me closer to the sea
out beyond the surf

- Shared by Lisa Hills -
Joys of Japan, May 2012

the pond’s depth ~
this perigee moon

- Shared by Elaine Andre -
Joys of Japan, 2012


the craters closer
ever closer

a couple on the pier
peer into eachother

- Shared by Dennis Chibi -
Joys of Japan, 2012


at midnight
the last gift of Golden Week
a silver supermoon

- Shared by Kit Nagamura -
Joys of Japan, 2012


my old dog
gazing at the supermoon
I fall asleep

Chen-ou Liu

Kigo Hotline

The perigee full moon on May 5, 2012 will be as much as 14 percent bigger and 30 percent brighter than other full moons of 2012.
LOOK at the NASA video here:
source : www.nasa.gov



Nisan was determined by a celestial event.
The Nisan moon was the first moon that would become a full moon after the passing of the spring equinox. Nisan thereby marked the first month of the year on the Hebrew calendar for the religious year. The Nisan moon, confirmed by the ripening of the barley harvest determined the month in which Passover would be celebrated.

source : endtimepilgrim.org

. WKD : Nisan Moon haiku .


WASHOKU ... Japanese Food SAIJIKI


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