6/05/2010

Indigo (ai)

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Indigo plant (ai)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Plant, Humanity


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Explanation


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ai 藍 Chinese indigo plant
Polygonum tinctorium Lour.
Polygonum tinctorum
tadeai タデアイ dyer's knotweed

This plant belongs to the family of buckwheat. Its leaves are used to produce the blue Indigo dye.
It was already used in China during the Western Zhou period (ca. 1045-771 B.C.).
Until the introduction of Indigofera, this was the most important blue dye in Asia.
It was introduced to Japan in the 4th and 5th century.


Indigofera
is a large genus of about 700 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Fabaceae. Originally from Pakistan, they have now been transported to much of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with a few species, also the temperate zone of eastern Asia.

Several of them and especially Indigofera tinctoria and Indigofera suffruticosa are used to produce the dye indigo.

The chemical aniline, from which many important dyes are derived, was first synthesized from I. suffruticosa (syn. I. anil, whence the name aniline).
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Before the use of tade ai around the 6th centure, the more wild form of

yama ai 山藍 やまあい "Mountain Indigo" was used in Japan.
Mercurialis leiocarpa
Its roots or leaves were crushed and the liquid used for dyeing.
aizuri no koromo 藍摺衣 robes dyed with mountain indigo
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

akamo no suso 赤裳(あかも)の裾(すそ) hem of the traditional red robes

Yama-ai robes were a kind of blue, called SEI 青.
At this time, the difference between green and blue was not yet made.



Reference


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kigo for early spring

ai maku 藍蒔く (あいまく) sowing indigo plants
ai uu 藍植う(あいうう)planting indigo


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kigo for all summer

ai yukata 藍浴衣(あいゆかた)indigo yukata

light cotton robes, yukata 浴衣 ゆかた




kigo for late summer

ai karu 藍刈る (あいかる) harvesting indigo
first harvest of indigo, ichiban ai 一番藍(いちばんあい)
second harvest of indigo, niban ia 二番藍(にばんあい)

aidama 藍玉(あいだま)"indigo ball"
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

aitsuki 藍搗(あいつき)pounding indigo

shed for pounding indigo miniature
. Folk Toys from Tokushima .


yama ai 山藍(やまあい)mountain indigo

Ryuukyuu ai 琉球藍(りゅうきゅうあい)indigo from Okinawa
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

Indo ai インド藍(いんどあい)Indigo from India

Numbers used in Kigo



iwatade, iwa tade 岩蓼 (いわたで) "rock Tade"
..... ontade おんたで
..... koiwa tade 小岩蓼(こいわたで)
Polygonum weyrichii
Aconogonon weyrichii オンタデ(御蓼) ontade


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kigo for mid-autumn


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ai no hana 藍の花 (あいのはな) indigo flowers
..... tadeai no hana 蓼藍の花(たであいのはな)(tade-ai)



kigo for all spring

tade no me 蓼の芽 (たでのめ) indigo buds
..... metade, me tade 芽蓼(めたで)


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kigo for all autumn

kara-ai no hana 韓藍の花(からあいのはな) cockscomb flowers
(lit. Indigo plant from Korea)
. . . CLICK here for Photos !



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Worldwide use


Oklahoma

Cream Wild Indigo, Baptisia bracteata
Blue Wild Indigo, Baptisia australis
Indigo Bush, Amorpha fruticosa
White Wild Indigo, Baptisia alba

. Oklahoma Saijiki  



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Things found on the way





aizome 藍染 dying with indigo

Indigo Ai had been very popular for deep -blue coloring. It can produce amazingly deep indigo blue even though the very material are green leaves.
Aizome is one of the oldest dyeing techniques in Japan and it also has medical effect such as detoxification. Therefore, Aizome cotton was so popular among the ordinary people and they made many types of designing techniques such as Tsutsugaki, Katazome, and Shibori more and more popular.
Their simple beautifulness is strong and lively compared with luxurious silk and elaborate dye that upper-classed people were fond of.

The basic raw material is the leaf of the Polygonum Tinctorium. The Japanese process differs from that in other parts of the world in that the leaves are fermented to extract the indigo compound.

The plant grows well in the southern part of Japan; nowadays only four main providers manage to maintain their business. Kosoen - located in the western part of Tokyo - directly orders sukumo すくも (fermented Polygonum leaves) from the Tokushima area of Shikoku (one of the 4 main islands of Japan).

Using sukumo - composted leaves - doesn't provide any shortcut to the rest of the dyeing process. Compared with other Indigo dyeing methods, the Japanese way requires more sensitive care throughout the process because they have to keep the bacteria alive through the entire dyeing session!
source : www.kosoen.com




aizome leather purse with Daruma box

CLICK for original LINK


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Daruma Coaster of blue indigo cotton material  



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E132 Indigo carmine, Indigotine
FD&C Blue 2 (food colouring)

. Food Colors and E-Numbers (European Union)



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fukaai, fuka-ai 深藍 dark indigo
almost black,
ai-iro 藍色あいいろ #165e83
koi-ai 濃藍こいあい #0f2350
. Japanese Color Codes


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Baptisia australis, commonly known as
Blue Wild Indigo or Blue False Indigo, is a herbaceous perennial in the pea family. It is native to much of the central and eastern North America and is particularly common in the Midwest, but it has also been introduced well beyond its natural range.
It is well known in gardens due to its attractive pea-like, deep blue flowers that emerge on spikes in the late spring and early summer.

Additional common names of this plant exist, such as Indigo Weed, Rattleweed, Rattlebush and Horse Fly Weed.
The common name "blue false indigo" is derived from it being used as a substitute for the superior dye producing plant, namely Indigofera tinctoria.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



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HAIKU






初染めや藍職人の爪の藍
hatsuzome ya ai-shokunin no tsume no ai

first dyeing -
the blue nails
of an indigo dyer


Kondoo Yooko 近藤陽子




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Related words

kigo for early autumn

aka no manma 赤のまんま "red as it is"
...... aka no mama 赤のまま
red knotweed/smartweed/jointweed
inutade, inu tade 犬蓼 (いぬたで) "dog smartweed"
hanatade, hana tade 花蓼(はなたで)
Polygonum longisetum

tade no hana 蓼の花 (たでのはな)
flowers of the red knotweed /smartweed /jointweed
hotade 穂蓼(ほたで)ears of knotweed
tade momiji 蓼紅葉(たでもみじ) red leaves of knotweed



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ooketade 大毛蓼 (おおけたで) Polygonum orientale
..... benikusa 紅草(べにくさ) "red plant"
kiss me over the garden gate
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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kigo for all summer
tade 蓼 (たで) smartweed, water pepper

Persicaria hydropiper. Bitterling
yanagitade 柳蓼(やなぎたで)
hontade 本蓼(ほんたで)"real smartweed"
..... matade 真蓼(またで)
tade tsumu 蓼摘む(たでつむ)picking smartweed
tade uri 蓼売(たでうり)selling smartweed
tadesu 蓼酢(たです) smartweed vinegar




. TADE ... food with water pepper  
benitade 紅蓼 / tade たで(蓼) water pepper, smartweed
Polygonum hydropiper
aotade アオタデ green water pepper

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kigo for late spring

suiba 酸葉 (すいば) garden (cock) sorrel, sour dock
..... 酸模(すいば)
sukanbo, sukan bo すかんぽ
suisui すいすい, sushi すし

a kind of tade.
Flowers from April to July. The stem is about 30 to 80 cm long.
People used to pick it at the roadside and suck its sour juice.

. . . CLICK here for Photos !


gishigishi 羊蹄 (ぎしぎし) Rumex (of the tade and sorrel family)
riku junsai 陸じゅんさい(りくじゅんさい)
Rumex japonicus


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kigo for early autumn

yanonegusa 矢の根草 (やのねぐさ)
Polygonum nipponense
lit. "arrow head plant"

A yearly plant that grows in wetlands. The form of the leaves relate to the name.


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***** .SAIJIKI ... HUMANITY
Kigo for Summer
 


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1 comment:

Gabi Greve said...

百年の老舗を守り藍植うる
hyakunen no shinise o mamori ai uuru

they protect the store
of a hundred years history -
planting indigo

. Inahata Teiko 稲畑汀子 .

Tr. Gabi Greve

shinise 老舗 a long-established store
traditional store, store with a long history of at least 5 generations

MORE
http://edoflourishing.blogspot.jp/2013/03/shinise-traditional-store.html

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